The conclusion is a very important part of your essay. Although it is sometimes treated as a roundup of all of the bits that didn’t fit into the paper earlier, it deserves better treatment than that! It's the last thing the reader will see, so it tends to stick in the reader's memory. It's also a great place to remind the reader exactly why your topic is important. A conclusion is more than just "the last paragraph"—it's a working part of the paper. This is the place to push your reader to think about the consequences of your topic for the wider world or for the reader's own life!
A good conclusion should do a few things:
- Restate your thesis
- Synthesize or summarize your major points
- Make the context of your argument clear
Restating Your Thesis
You've already spent time and energy crafting a solid thesis statement for your introduction, and if you've done your job right, your whole paper focuses on that thesis statement. That's why it's so important to address the thesis in your conclusion! Many writers choose to begin the conclusion by restating the thesis, but you can put your thesis into the conclusion anywhere—the first sentence of the paragraph, the last sentence, or in between. Here are a few tips for rephrasing your thesis:
- Remind the reader that you've proven this thesis over the course of your paper. For example, if you're arguing that your readers should get their pets from animal shelters rather than pet stores, you might say, "If you were considering that puppy in the pet-shop window, remember that your purchase will support 'puppy mills' instead of rescuing a needy dog, and consider selecting your new friend at your local animal shelter." This example gives the reader not only the thesis of the paper, but a reminder of the most powerful point in the argument!
- Revise the thesis statement so that it reflects the relationship you've developed with the reader during the paper. For example, if you've written a paper that targets parents of young children, you can find a way to phrase your thesis to capitalize on that—maybe by beginning your thesis statement with, "As a parent of a young child…"
- Don’t repeat your thesis word for word—make sure that your new statement is an independent, fresh sentence!
Summary or Synthesis
This section of the conclusion might come before the thesis statement or after it. Your conclusion should remind the reader of what your paper actually says! The best conclusion will include a synthesis, not just a summary—instead of a mere list of your major points, the best conclusion will draw those points together and relate them to one another so that your reader can apply the information given in the essay. Here are a couple of ways to do that:
- Give a list of the major arguments for your thesis (usually, these are the topic sentences of the parts of your essay).
- Explain how these parts are connected. For example, in the animal-shelter essay, you might point out that adopting a shelter dog helps more animals because your adoption fee supports the shelter, which makes your choice more socially responsible.
One of the most important functions of the conclusion is to provide context for your argument. Your reader may finish your essay without a problem and understand your argument without understanding why that argument is important. Your introduction might point out the reason your topic matters, but your conclusion should also tackle this questions. Here are some strategies for making your reader see why the topic is important:
- Tell the reader what you want him or her to do. Is your essay a call to action? If so, remind the reader of what he/she should do. If not, remember that asking the reader to think a certain way is an action in itself. (In the above examples, the essay asks the reader to adopt a shelter dog—a specific action.)
- Explain why this topic is timely or important. For example, the animal-shelter essay might end with a statistic about the number of pets in shelters waiting for adoption.
- Remind the readers of why the topic matters to them personally. For example, it doesn’t matter much if you believe in the mission of animal shelters, if you're not planning to get a dog; however, once you're looking for a dog, it is much more important. The conclusion of this essay might say, "Since you’re in the market for a dog, you have a major decision to make: where to get one." This will remind the reader that the argument is personally important!
A marketing plan is a detailed, researched and written report that a business uses in order to outline the actions that should be taken to customers and clients and measures taken to persuade them to purchase the product. It communicates to the customers on the value of goods and services. Marketing personnel evaluate the results marketing decisions made in previous years and the market in which a business operates in order to make the right decisions .They also set goals that provide direction on how marketing should be carried out. Coca-Cola Company success has been attributed by a well structured marketing plan. Marketing plan prepared by the management determines how well it will exist in the market.
A brief discussion is made concerning an existing or new product of a business in the marketing plan. Product identification involves knowing the identity of a product from its source of production, raw materials used in production, work –in- progress, finished product storage and the delivery of the products to the customers. Identification of a product can be controlled through electronic and physical methods. Product decisions should include products brand name, quality, and scope of the product line, warranty and its mode of packaging. (Derek 45).
Coca-Cola Company sells soft drinks and beverages to the customers. Its management takes into consideration the advantages of selling a product and how it’s leveraged in the market so as to maximize on its profits. The branding and packaging of its products unique thus has a higher competitive advantage as opposed to that of its competitors.
The basic strategy of a business is to determine a business objective .Some non-financial market metrics can be used to measure the success of a business. These include target market objectives and market shares- total number of new or retained customers and rate and size of purchases made in a business. These metrics show the conditions and a circumstance facing a company that cannot be solved through using financial methods (Baker 19).Coca Cola Company overall objective has been to meet the needs of its customers, to penetrate the market through providing high quality products and having a big market share through distributing its products to all parts of the world.
The size and mark up of a market is determined by the products being sold in a business. It is also indicated by the environment in which it’s conducting its business. In the marketing there should be a mission statement that identifies a businesses long-run goal, market it serves incentives and products and services given to customers. Coca-Cola Company’s markets it products through producing concentrate syrup that is fit for consumption to all its franchise shops in the world, this increases the sale returns of the company.
When preparing marketing plan one should take into consideration the reasons that make a customer prefer a product from one business as opposed from its competitor. According to Porter, he stated that it is important to prepare a detailed competitive summary of the products and services variables and be ranked in comparison to those of its competitors so as to prepare the right plan for a business. The variables include; pricing, sales, trends, positioning, clarity, quality, target market focus, packaging, advertising and customer service. The management of a company should know it competitors so as to understand its strengths and weaknesess.These can be achieved through evaluating the competitors experience in business, purchasing power, market position, strength predictability and the freedom to abandon the market. The Coca Cola Company produces different kinds of products which increases of its sale turnover and makes it to have a higher competitive advantage as opposed to its competitors. It sometimes gives free samples and incentives to its customers.
A price is determined by the net income and the objective that a company have for the market of its product. The pricing decisions can be determined by knowing the market, competitors, the economic condition of a country and the customers. Tables and graphs can be used to show the pricing trends and decisions of different products of a company. The main factors that an organization should take into account while setting up its prices is that of pricing stategy,the expected volume and decision for following a pricing variable for instance; list price, discounts, payment terms and financing options. Coca Cola company pricing is friendly as its products are recyclable therefore minimizing on the cost of producing the empty bottles used to pack its products.
A product should be advertised and promoted in the market so that the customer can get to know about its existence in the market. A business should determine how much and which media should be used in advertising a product. Kotler, et.al stated there are factors that should be taken into account when promoting a product that include; public relations, promotional programs, projected results for promotional programs and budget that determines the break-even point for making a sale of a product. Coca-Cola Company has been using the fat and jolly Santa Claus in advertising of its products, this has enabled it to increase on its sales and production for its products.
This process involves ensuring the products reach the customers on time. In marketing plan, distribution is an important element that consists of decision variables such as; distribution channels as direct, retail and intermediate channels; criteria for evaluating distributions ;locations; motivators of channels such as distributor margins and logistics such as transportation ,warehousing and order fulfillment . An organization should choose the best channel that can enable it maximize on its profits (Porter 34).Coca-Cola company produces syrups fit for consumption thus reducing the cost of transporting products from one place to another.
Sales forecast is derived through understanding a product, market for a product, price, promotional methods used, and types of distribution a channel for a product .Sales forecast is the driving force of all financial forecasts. It is required to give a brief summary of current sales, identify changes, summarize changes in the forecast, and justify a forecast so as to determine the right information concerning about a product and who well it can fair in the market. The sales forecast helps the management of an organization to determine the kind of resources that should be implemented in an organization in order to maximize on its profits .In this case, factors such as political, environmental, technological and competitive factors are evaluated so as to determine whether the business operates in a good environment. Coca-Cola sales team derives the sales turnover on different intervals in the year to evaluate the position of the company in the beverage industry.
Sales forecast review by management
Sales forecast review by management can be achieved through using the sales manager who can understand the contacts in the industry, can familiarize themselves with advertising and promotion techniques that will increase sales revenue for an organization. The qualification of the sales personnel to generate sales leads, their relationship with the distributors and location of their sales outlets in order to increase the revenue of an organization is taken into consideration .These mechanisms can ensure the management reviews it sales forecast with the actual sales so as to understand the position of business in the market. Coca-Cola company employees prepare financial reports on an annual basis to inform the customers at its existence and production of high quality products.
Marketing plans should be reviewed on an annual basis so as to determine how a business is performing in the industry. The management of business should use the marketing plan to determine the environment in which a business can flourish in the industry. These are prepared in relation to the products and services that are sold that result from marketing strategy implemented through marketing programs. Coca-Cola company success has been contributed by well structured strategy and market penetration and production of a variety of products that are suitable for its customers.
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