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NIOS DLED Assignment Course-501 Full Answer In English. Here are all the answer of dled assignment course-501. I hope this can help you through your assignment.

Course-501

Elementary Education in India: A Socio- Cultural Perspective

Max. Marks 30

Assignment-I

Note: Answer the following questions in about 500 words.

Q1. What type of changes you want in yourself as a teacher to cater the need of the changing society and learner? Explain with at least two examples.

Ans.  As the world is becoming more advanced and new things are coming up so students should be kept updated about the new innovations and about the changing trends in the world. As a teacher the learning process should not stop and teachers like students should also keep learning new things so that they can teach their students something new every day. This tendency of learning new things will help a lot in development of a teachers.

Studies show that teachers, who have a healthy and friendly relationship with their students, are more successful in their academic field. So, the most important thing that I will definitely adopt is friendly and caring attitude with my students. It helps to know students especially when the students come from different cultural and socio-economic background.

The other most important thing is that always ask students for their feedback. It gives them the impression that you consider their opinions and experiences and value them. It also creates a culture where students feel free to ask questions and share their ideas which also helps them to grow personally, academically and socially.

A teacher holds a very respectful position in society. It’s a proud feeling to be respected by students. A good teacher is respected everywhere in the society. Unlike all other jobs even teaching methods have changed now. Even the attitude of children has changed since the past decade. Thus, as a teacher I would like to bring a few changes in myself. These changes are as under:

  • I would like to develop in me the unique ability of reading my students’ mind so that I can preempt something untoward; and provide them learning environment, absorbing activities, and counsel them not only to overcome their academic challenges, but also the general challenges of life.
  • I would like to upgrade my subject knowledge regularly and blend that knowledge with technology to make it learning effective, interesting, and result-oriented.
  • Now days technology can be used to teach students. These days we can teach through projector to explain better. We can connect with parents online and inform about homework and other updates. So, I would also like to teach my students with these technologies.
  • As a teacher, it’s very important to have a command over students. These days children are becoming more stubborn. We need to become more dominating. Therefore, I’ll become little more dominant at my classroom.

Above all as a teacher I would like to teach students self-confidence which is the most needed thing in today’s world and which is often ignored at school and also I want to help children know how to talk to people and in what way they communicate to people so that they leave a lasting impact on the other person. They should be given motivation classes so that they study properly and think of studying as something they need and should take interest in studying rather than just studying it for the sake of a duty.

Or

How do you feel that role of ancient guru has changed in present society?

Which qualities of ancient Guru you would like to adopt as a teacher? Why?

Ans. In Bhartiya Darshan ‘Guru’ has significant place. It consists of two words, Gu-ru. The word ‘Gu’ indicated darkness and ‘ru’ means controller. It means to avoid darkness or ignorance. In Vedas the term achariya is used for guru. Guru is considered greatest treasure of knowledge.

Guru was playing many roles in those days for the students like parent, teacher, scholar, missionary, a friend-philosopher and a guide. He was to pay personal attention to the needs of the students. It was a responsibility of Guru to see that the student develops, makes progress to the satisfaction of Guru as well as to his own satisfaction. That time the relationship between teachers used to be very intimate and the taught-like father and son.

Oral interaction method was prevalent those days. Lectures, discourses, a debates and discussions, recitation and recapitulation were part of routine daily student life. Assessment was continuous comprehensive assessment internally conducted by Guru. There were no terminal examinations, no degree-certificates, but announcing by the Guru in the convocation that the student has graduated after completion of the stipulated studies. Guru would present the qualified student to a gathering of learned people who may ask questions, or the student would be asked to contest in debate and prove himself. Then for his mastery over the subject, the student would be known and accepted as a scholarly person.

Learners’ autonomy was respected. They were free to choose the Guru and the subject of study. At the same time, to accept the student (Shishya) or not, it was a prerogative of the Guru, the teacher.

In the new world, there are numerous roles the teacher is expected to perform. The typical roles may include:

▪ Developer and nurturer of e-culture,

▪ Networker and change agent,

▪ Learning practitioner and facilitator.

▪ Learning resource developer

▪ Techno-pedagogue

▪ Evaluator

▪ Action researcher

▪ Behaviour scientist

▪ Curriculum designer and transact or

▪ Instructional system designer

The gurus were unselfish and lived for the good of the world. But this is difficult to follow these days. Gurus were respected very well. They taught students in the middle of nature. There were practicals too. Gurus were appreciated by the kings and were sponsored by them. Gurus had powers to command their students and disciples. They could judge the situations well and were able to give good advice to kings or people. Therefore, we need some of these qualities in today’s teachers.

Q2. Survey some schools in your locality and enlist the major issues of the elementary education. Suggest the ways to resolve these issues.

Ans. The survey of some schools shows that the major issues of elementary education are :-

  • The classrooms do not have sufficient furniture. Three or four students have to share the same bench. Some of them even sit on the floor.
  • There is no proper blackboard. Teaching small kids of class 1st to 3rd get really complicated because they need a lots of board work.
  • Teachers are not focusing on all around development of students.
  • Teachers are not trained suitably.
  • The students are from poorer sections of society so the fees and indirect school related costs like uniform, books and study materials, transport are very high for them.
  • A good pay leads to a better education but the teachers in schools are not getting proper pay due to which they are not able to teach students properly.

Some steps which can be taken to resolve these issues are:-

  • The government should allocate more money for education. So that they can equip the classroom with properly resources. The proper inquiry should also be placed that can ensure that the money of government are been used in right place.
  • Teacher training programs should be given importance.
  • Teachers should be given incentives and better salaries so that they can teach properly with their full effort.
  •  Fees and other school related costs should be reduced. If possible free education should be imparted.
  • Teachers should teach something out of the book like general knowledge, interesting facts and all those things that can help a student to grow.

 Or

Visit some schools in your locality and prepare a report in the context of adaptation of salient features of NCF 2005.

Ans. I visited XYZ school in my locality. It is a state board syllabus school. The most attractive thing I noticed about the school was they have inclusive learning. They have inculcated in their curriculum learner centric mode.

They encourage the children to participate in various club activities like chess, carom, gardening, classical dance, silambam and Carnatic music. They have NSS in their school and they do lots of social service through the same.

They have activities such as worksheet, which makes the children to brainstorm and write. They have worksheets for all the subjects. They have a big playground which has a basketball court and volleyball court. They also have a separate place for yoga and meditation. All these have a separate time-table.

Their first language is the regional language, that is, Tamil. Their medium of instruction is English and Hindi is taught as third language. Their classroom is well-equipped with smart board. This enables the teacher to make her teaching interesting and the teacher is able to reach out to all the three types of learners, “Auditory, Visual and Kinesthetic learner”. They have well ventilated rooms and the teacher-student ratio is for every thirty children-one teacher.

The children are made to cherish their learning through practical training. Various competitions are conducted for the same purpose. Extended learning happens when they are taken on a field trip. Taking the children on a field trip is done every term based on the lesson which requires such learning.

In order to prepare the children for the competitive exams, they have Math Lab, STEM lab and in order to give a holistic development for a child they have the games on the computers which enhances a child’s concentration, observing skills and quick thinking skills. As far as exams are concerned, till 5th standard, the child gets only grades. Exams are conducted in a leisurely manner, sometime it is conducted on one on one basis. From VI upwards it is marks. This is to motivate the children to prepare for the Board Exam.

Children are happy to come to school because they carry fewer books as most of the books are collected and kept in the class. Each child has a cubicle to keep his/her books. The teachers are friendly and firm. If a child does not complete the homework consecutively for three days, parents are intimated and the root cause is found.

If a child is found copying, the child is sent home to introspect for two days and then return. This way the child gets to understand the mistake done by her/him.

I was very happy to study this school because they have almost adhered to all the rules laid in NCF 2005. ‘J.P Naik has described an exclusive triangle for Indian Education and that is, equality, quality and quantity’. This school has their school motto as “empowering knowledge by invoking the creativity in the young minds”.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-501 Full Answer In English

Assignment – II

Q1. Enlist the various reasons for exclusion. What strategies you will adopt to setup an inclusive school and classroom?

Ans. The minority is constantly under the threat of assimilation. When under the compulsions of economy the family structure is loosened, the social organisation faces disintegration, the handicrafts and other finer cultural traits of distinctiveness face extinction, and language remains a major identity marker if not the only one and acts as the only window to the cultural past of a people. The demand for the recognition of minority languages and their use in education, administration and mass communication draws strength from this situation.

Education is generally directed towards the needs of the students coming from homes having a majority status in the society. As a result, students belonging to minority community often feel excluded in school environment. There are following reasons for their exclusion:

  • The preconceived notions of the students might be different from those of the majority due to difference in cultural background.
  • Students might find the content irrelevant as they are.
  • The language used in the textbooks and in classroom transactions could be different from the mother tongue of the students.
  • The experiences referred in the textbooks and in a classroom, discourse might be unfamiliar to the students.

To facilitate the development of inclusive society in which every member has an opportunity to achieve his/her potential to fullest extent is the real purpose of building an inclusive school. In order to achieve this objective, it is necessary that diversity among learner population is given due importance and provision is made to achieve everyone’s rights. Access for all is the central concept in inclusive schools. It involves the psychological and physical environment of the school including curriculum transactions. All these aspects of the school should be conductive to learners with different abilities and social background. In brief, it is essential that the school should have inclusive learning environment that fosters the personal, academic and professional development of all the students.

The attitude of a teacher is the essential aspect of an inclusive classroom. A teacher who believes that the intelligence is inherited and nothing much can be done to improve it will hardly encourage the development of all the students. On the other hand, a teacher who is optimistic about the potential of individual and who maintains that the intelligence can manifest in different forms would provide an inclusive environment in the classroom to foster individual talent. Teacher must realize that diversity in learner is inevitable and everyone would have different requirements. Taking these diversities into account a teacher has to create both psychological and physical environment in the classroom. Every child has a chance to progress, in such a conducive environment.

Every year, SSA framework provides `1200 every disabled child. While planning for the utilization of this money, it should be borne in mind that the amount available is not only for the use of a particular child with a special need, but also has to be utilized for planning of Inclusive Education activities at the school/habitat/village levels. For implementing the programmer of Inclusive Education, the SSA State Mission Societies are allocated funds depending on the total number of disabled children identified in the district. While some disabled children may only need the help of a special education teacher, others may require simple equipment like assertive devices like hearing aid, etc. However, this does not mean that this amount has to be spent annually; it can be accumulated for a year or two and utilized on a sizable facility.

This amount could be used in other activities like assessment camps, development of training material, community awareness campaigns, 45-day Rehabilitation Council of India recognized teacher training, requesting specific services from NGOs, workshops and meetings. An attempt should be made to provide aids and appliances to identified CWSN through convergence. If this is not possible, then SSA funds could be used for this purpose. Only in exceptional circumstances, referral to residential special schools should be made. As far as possible CWSNs should be allowed stay with their family. Interventions for education of children with disabilities have to be planned by each district keeping in view available resources. In normal schools, overriding emphasis should be on inclusive education and in special schools, not isolating them.

Or

Suggest ways to access and retention of child in school.

Ans. Following are the ways to access and retention of child in school:

  1. Improvement in the quality and relevance of schooling – This can help to increase the enrolment of children in the schools. When people perceive that schools provide quality education and offer an opportunity to learn relevant skills they will send their children to schools.
  2. Make the school environment child friendly – Another way to increase access and retention is to make the teaching and learning environment safe and secure. It should be conducive to the health of the students. There should be no violence or aggression. Teaching and learning should be interesting. This will also develop interest in children’s towards study.
  3. Increase the amount of expenditure on education – The government can give grants to schools and scholarships to the students. It can spend money on the teacher training programs. Government should organise some scholarship competitions for students. This will give an opportunity to rise to skills of the students. If there will be scholarship then the students will participate with their full effort.
  4. Reduction of school-related costs – Direct costs of schooling like fees, uniforms, learning materials and transportation and indirect costs act as a barrier to access and retention of children in schools. If school related costs are reduced more children can afford to go to school.
  5. The government can take steps to encourage education – It can provide different incentives for setting up schools. It can encourage the people to send their children to school by giving various concessions and facilities to them.
  6. Parental and community involvement in schools – Parents and teachers should work together to build the personality of the child. There should be parent-teacher meetings. Parents and other members of the community should be invited for the sports and other cultural functions. This will encourage the students to continue their education.
  7. Teachers should teach students in an interesting manner, this will increase interest in studying and the classes will not be boring.
  8. Alternative provision or complementary education – Non-formal education can be provided by the community organized schools or NGOs. Such initiatives provide high levels of access and produce significant learning outcomes. This does not require excessive expenditure.

Location of schools closer to the residences of children – If the schools are located nearby it will be easier for parents to send their children to school. It will help to minimize the time and expenses involved in attending schools. So more children will join schools and continue their studies.

Q2. You as a teacher, critically analyse the implementation issues of Right to Education Act, 2009, face by your school. Suggest ways for better implementation of the Act?

Ans. When it comes to implementation of RTE Act, the situation is worse in the state of Uttar Pradesh. I work in a government school of UP. There are are lot of statistics which indicate that the Uttar Pradesh is way behind in improving its education system and in implementing the RTE Act in improving its education system and in implementing the RTE Act in its letter and spirit. According to a Report titled “Education for All-Towards Quality with Equity” (2014) prepared by National University for Educational Planning and Administration (NEUPA), there were 8.15 million children out of school in 2009. Uttar Pradesh accounted 3 4% of these 8.15 million out of school children, i.e. 2.78 million children. Currently, the figure of “out of school” children in the entire country is counted up to 3.45 crore.

By virtue of S. 12 (1) (c), the RTE Act imposes ‘a legal obligation on the private unaided schools to enroll children from the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and disadvantaged groups at entry level, with 25% seats to be reserved for them, in order to make these schools more inclusive’. Though the enrollment rate in EWS category under S. 12 (1) (c) of the Act increased from 21.5% fill rate in 2012-13 to 29% in 2013-14, in Uttar Pradesh, however, this rate was recorded the lowest at 3.62%, by “State of the Nation” (2015) Report. The Report was brought out collectively by Indian Institute of Management, Ahmadabad, Central Square Foundation, Accountability Initiative and Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy. The same Report estimates that the 25% reservation clause in UP would cover 633262 seats, out of which a total of only 5033 seats were filled in 2014-15 with a seat fill rate of 0.79%. In 2013-14, the seat fill rate was 1.17%. The attitude of elite private schools, in this regard, can be seen from the attitude of City Montessori School (CMS) in the case, City Montessori School v. State of U.P. (2015), wherein the school was refusing to admit 31 EWS students in one of its branches.

Additionally, RTE Act creates several obligations on the government regarding the quantity and quality of teachers, and the operation of schools. The Schedule to the RTE Act includes numerous provisions which specify the number of teachers (at least two for class I to V, and at least one per class for class VI to VIII) and the Pupil-Teacher Ratio (no more than 30:1 in class I to V, for schools with 120 students or fewer, and no more than 40:1 for larger schools; and no more than 35:1 in class VI to VIII.

The target was supposed to be met by March 31, 2013. On U.P.’s schools, ASER 2016 states that only 30.8% comply with the RTE mandated pupil-teacher ratio.

                                                                                                         Or

Visit some schools in your locality and enlist the various program related to SSA. How these programs can help in harmonization of Right to Education Act, 2009 and SSA?

Ans. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a programme for Universalisation of Elementary Education covering the entire country, started in 2001. The programme aims to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 years age group by 2010. It is an initiative to universalize and improve quality of education in a mission made through decentralized and context specific planning and a process based, time bound implementation strategy. The programmer lays emphasis for bridging all gender and social category gaps at elementary education level. SSA was initiated in 2001 following recommendations from the state education ministers’ conference in 1998. Although the 86th Amendment to the Constitution enacted in 2002 made elementary education a fundamental right, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act that operationalize the provision of free and compulsory education was not passed by the Parliament until August 2009.

By following points, SSA programs can help in harmonization of Right to Education Act, 2009:

  1. The SSA is governed at the Center by a General Body chaired by the Prime Minister, an Executive Committee and a Project Approval Board. In the states, it is implemented through separately registered societies with staff deputed from the state government or appointed on contract. A Governing Body and an Executive Committee functions in every state too. A State Project Director oversees the SSA at the state level, in addition to the already existing Director/Commissioner of Education.
  2. The RTE Act envisages a National Advisory Council at the Center and State Advisory Councils, to advice on the implementation of the Act. As for monitoring, the Act designates the NCPCR and the SCPCRs (or REPA) to ensure that the rights of children are not violated.
  3. SSA has a Joint Review Mission (JRM) that reviews the progress of the project every six months. The developmental partners of SSA, namely the World Bank, the DFID and the European Commission, are a part of this JRM exercise.
  4. RTE requires the entire education department to be geared in a unified manner to take up the task on a long term basis. In the long run this would require the unification of the existing SSA structures with the regular education department. The actual convergence of SSA structures with the regular education department and the SCERT should commence immediately; dichotomous and overlapping structures, wherever they exist and are adversely affecting the programme, should be eliminated. However, complete integration of SSA and Elementary Education Department structures may take some time. It is, therefore, prudent to implement a transitional strategy whereby a modified SSA remains the modality to be replaced by a new scheme compatible with the provisions of the Act from the middle of the Twelfth Plan period. Till then, SSA would be the vehicle for implementation of the RTE Act.
  5. Thus, the NAC/SACs under the RTE Act will coexist with the General Body and Executive Committee structure of the SSA till the NAC/SACs take over the full advisory role by end of the Eleventh Plan. Similarly, as the NCPCR/SCPCR (REPA) gradually takes over the monitoring role, and it becomes clear what the future role of the development partners shall be beyond the Eleventh Plan period, the JRM would continue. In the meantime, the precise nature of review and monitoring beyond the Eleventh Plan could be worked out in a manner that fulfils the provisions of the Act.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-501 Full Answer In English

 Assignment – III

Q1. Who are the ones who have dropped-out? Visit some schools in your locality and prepare a list on the drop-out children at the elementary level in your District. Enlist the reasons for the same? What can you do, as a teacher, to ensure that students retention in school?

Ans. A dropout is a student who was enrolled at some time during the previous school year but who was not enrolled (and who does not meet reporting exclusions) on day 20 of the current school year. A single individual may be counted as a dropout more than once if s/he drops out of school in multiple years.

Out of approximately 200 million children in the age-group 6-14 years, only 120 million are in schools. The overall dropout rate was 40 per cent at the primary level and 55 per cent at the upper primary level in 1999-2000 (India Vision, 2020).

In a resettlement colony in northwest Delhi, I had a conversation with 54-year-old Abha Devi about why her family stopped sending her 15-year-old granddaughter Soni to school. Abha’s family was forcefully evicted from a central Delhi jhuggi-jhopri (JJ) cluster in Delhi in 2006, along with other families, and resettled in a JJ resettlement colony close to the Haryana border. Abha’s 13-year-old grandson continues his schooling in the JJ resettlement colony where they currently live, while Soni dropped out of school at the age of 12. Abha and her family, including Soni, pointed out that it is unsafe for girls to go out in this JJ colony. Women’s safety – or the lack thereof – is a recurrent narrative across Delhi’s resettlement colonies.

According to the Social and Rural Research Institute-India Market Research Bureau 2014 survey data, the percentage share of girls out of school is higher than that of boys in the age bracket of 6-13 years in Delhi as well as in urban India. However, both rates of out-of-school children and their gender disparity are much higher in NCT Delhi compared to urban India on average in the same age bracket. Gender disparity in out-of school children is further sharpened in urban resettlement colonies in Delhi.

Like many large cities in India, the government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) regularly evicts jhuggi settlements from central parts of the city. The GNCTD provides resettlement plots to some of the evicted bastes (slums and JJ clusters) dwellers in the margins of the city within so called ‘planned’ resettlement colonies. Fear and lack of oversight in the nascent resettlement colonies constrain women’s mobility. Young girls and boys experience urban displacement differently, especially in relation to their experiences with schooling after eviction and resettlement. While most boys continue schooling, girls mostly drop out after a certain age.

Existing research reveals three main reasons for high dropout rates for girls in India: higher expectations of domesticity from girls (early marriage, sharing domestic responsibilities with parents and so on); safety concerns (boys teasing and taunting girls travelling to and from school); and infrastructural barriers (such as lack of toilets for girls in schools). Lack of women’s safety emerges as a key reason for the high female dropout rate in Delhi’s resettlement colonies.

The lack of women’s safety as a constraint for female education and mobility has become a trope. This is not to suggest that lack of women’s safety is a myth in these resettlement colonies. However, my research, based on interviews with young girls and women, highlighted that there are several other factors at play that impact this idea of ‘safety’.

Saying that it is only women’s safety concerns that causes girls to drop out of school camouflages a deep-rooted patriarchal psyche that could be the actual driver. ‘Ghar (home)’ or ‘inside’ is seen as the ideal place for girls. While gender-based violence ‘inside’ the home is acceptable, lack of women’s safety ‘outside’ the home is a threat.

Although better implementation of existing programmers for women’s empowerment is a challenge, it is not sufficient to ensure a gender-sensitive environment. Flagship programmes do not take into account ground-level realities. Recognizing and attacking context-specific patriarchal norms and practices should be the first step. Community mobilization is the real challenge for the success of programme goals.

Grassroots-level organisations such as Jagori initiated a more nuanced approach to combat gender-based violence in selected resettlement colonies in Delhi. Their plan includes training a cadre of youth leaders – both boys and girls –to “explore and understand issues of ending violence, building resistance and confidence”. Research-based action and understanding deep-rooted and context-specific problems in each resettlement colony and planning accordingly is crucial for successful outcomes. Action-based research, acknowledging the residents of the resettlement colonies as participants in the research and planning process as well as bridging gaps among residents, community leaders, volunteers, researchers and planners is equally important. Research-based action going hand in hand with action-based research is the need of the hour.

Shashi Kant Singh, Principal of a government school in Dwarka told First post that many of the students do not take admission even if their names are sent by the MCD schools.

“If a school sends names of 270 students normally 230 of them finally show up for admission,” he said. He also said that it was difficult to assess why some students never show up for admission, but he surmised that some among them take admission in the schools in the neighboring states.

Ashok Agarwal attributes the sudden rise in dropout rates to the neglect showed by the Delhi government towards the MCD schools. “The schemes introduced by the education department to decrease dropout rates are meant for the students studying in the schools run by the Delhi government,” he said.

He also added that no scheme has been introduced to do the same in MCD schools. This is the prime reason why dropout rates have jumped to an alarming level in these schools. He said that there is no scheme initiated by the education department even to bring these students back to school.

Or

Visit some schools in your locality and prepare a report on the issue of protecting child rights.

Ans. The brutal murder of a 7-year-old in a Gurgaon school and the rape of a 5-year-old in a Delhi school have once again reminded us of how unsafe schools can be for its children. It brings back memories of the twin drowning cases last year – one in a Delhi school (which is part of the same chain in which the 7-year-old was murdered) and the other in a government-run public school. These tragedies in school campuses aren’t just limited to schools in India but also occur in some of the developed countries as well. The central government on its part has passed laws such as Protection of Children against Sexual Offences (POCSO Act) and many state and city governments have issued school safety guidelines. Yet, the efficacy of such laws is very poor given the state’s poor capacity for implementation of such laws and guidelines. Having robust state mandated laws and protocols are a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition to protect our children in school. For example, while every state government mandates police verification for school teaching staff, very few police departments have a robust and a timely police verification system. While schools may find ways to get the police complete the verification of its staff, it doesn’t entirely eliminate the possibility of a criminal sneaking into the school’s payrolls. Another example is the recommended use of CCTVs by various governments. While CCTVs are important, they are often used retrospectively to analyse an offence rather than proactively to prevent one.

But there are a few things parents can and should do to ensure that the school is safe for their children – from sexual offences, bullying, corporal punishment, physical safety, natural calamities and medical emergencies. I’m sharing a few best practices some safe schools follow around my locality:

  1. Safe schools often have a matured and an independent safety committee with representations from parents, teachers and expert consultants. This committee has a mandate to work with the school on developing metrics for safety audits, process and policy design and creating buy-in from parent community on safety issues. But the primary responsibility of this committee is to help the school balance the safety concerns against curriculum requirements. Theoretically, the safest school is the one that locks its kids and teachers in a single room with no movement outside in corridors or playground! But that was not what schools are built for. Many good schools have totally abandoned any experiential and outdoor learning in favour traditional classrooms teaching because they are not confident of their safety procedures. A good parent safety committee must provide this support and comfort to schools by encouraging parents to volunteer as tour marshals.
  2. Much of a school’s safety is incidental upon its environmental design and its architecture. A school should have no dead zones – areas nobody has a visibility over. For example, there should be no doors that can be locked (except for individual bathroom units), no doors without transparent/glass panels, no rooms within rooms in the entire campus. Much of the crimes in schools can be prevented over the principle of ‘see and be seen’. Corridors and classrooms that encourage a natural surveillance provide the best deterrence. CCTV cameras should cover all the common areas especially remote or less populated areas. Unfortunately, most CCTVs are rendered useless due to their poor positioning and poor quality of images. Also, CCTVs are effective only when there are pairs of eyes scanning the live video feed. As parents, talk about its environmental design to your school.
  3. A proven method to build safe schools around the world is to have a culture of teachers ‘walking around’ during breaks, transition times, assembly time and dispersal at the end of the school. Research across schools in many geographies have time and again proven that schools that have dedicated teacher patrol routines during break and transition time drastically reduce bullying, physical accidents etc. Teacher patrols also build a large culture of care in the school community. Every student knows that someone is always watching out for us. Unfortunately, Indian schools unlike their counterparts in the west, do not focus on this protocol. Many of the state’s safety guidelines are silent on teacher patrols. As a parent, work with your school to ensure that there are caring adults walking around the campus, especially in areas where offences could happen – bathrooms, gym room, labs, deserted areas behind the school building etc.
  4. Safety doesn’t happen by accident. It happens through disciplined and consistent practice. Safe schools are diligent about their scheduled and unscheduled safety drills and training. Everyone in the community takes these drills seriously. Safe schools are also serious about sharing the lessons of safety drills and tweaking their processes. Parents should check the track record and findings of such drills in their schools.
  5. Often, Indian schools relegate the management of its blue collared staff to third party contractors building very little engagement and ownership among them. As much as a rigorous recruitment process, safe schools ensure continued engagement and training of its blue collared workers. Training not only includes protocols and procedure training, but also training on yoga, meditation and spirituality. As a parent knows, that safety is more about culture than it is about processes. Ask your school — how do they ensure engagement and ownership among its blue collared workers?
  6. Teachers who can teach their subject well need not necessarily be good at handling child safety issues. Does your school constantly invest in training and sensitising of teachers? Are all the teachers able to identify a child in distress? Do they have the maturity to sensitively handle issues and protect the child as per law and child rights guidelines? As a parent, ask your school on the training the school has invested in. Talk to the teachers to get a sense if the school has well articulated emergency procedures that are well understood by all.
  7. As crude it may sound, most safe schools will have a no touch policy. No teacher or staff, irrespective of gender, is allowed to touch any child for any reason whatsoever. While it may sound very conservative, it does, for a school system as a whole, ensure safety of the child (and the teacher too in cases of false/wrong accusations). Parents should have a dialogue with the school on what their policy on student teacher touch is.
  8. Safe schools do a good job of enforcing access controls in different parts of the school. No access zones areas are clearly demarcated— like zero access for bus drivers/conductors to children’s restrooms. Dead zones are adequately barricaded and rights of access are articulated visually. As a parent, see if you are experiencing these controls when you visit the school.
  9. While all Indian schools take student attendance in the morning, most schools do not have a robust mechanism to track students between class periods. No wonder many of the recent accidents or abuses in Indian schools happened in between classes. Some of the good practices include attendance in every class, corridor passes for stepping out of classes etc. Such tracking system not only makes the individual teacher accountable for each child in the class, but it also makes students accountable for their movement during class time.
  10. Lastly, no school, like anything else in life, can guarantee absolute safety. While the school may do everything in letter and spirit to substantially decrease the probability of an accident, it may not be able to totally eliminate the possibility of an accident. Safety is everybody’s business—not just the school’s or the government’s. Parents should not delude themselves by abdicating or outsourcing their child’s safety to the school. As a parent, ensure that your children are empowered to deal with any situation. Invest time in teaching them on how to keep themselves safe. Take efforts to build your own understanding of various issued faced by children of today.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-501 Full Answer In English

Also See:- NIOS D.EL.ED. Help Book Course-501 In English Medium

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English. Here are all the answer of dled assignment course-502. I hope this can help you through your assignment. 

Course-502: Pedagogic Processes in Elementary Schools

Assignment – I

Note : Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words.

Q1. Explain with suitable examples of four processes of observational learning. How
does imitation help in observational learning.

Ans. Learning from observation is a common and natural method of human learning. Observational learning is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others. Observational learning is a key learning method for children when acquiring basic tasks such as language and cultural norms. Learning through observation is not exact reproduction of the model’s behavior but developing behavior based on the observed behavior. According to Bandura, following are the distinct processes involved in observational learning:

(1)   Attention Process: We do not imitate the total behavioral of a model….rather we focus on specific that we are interested to learn. We pay attention to significant features of the behavior we want to learn. For example, a child learning to write in good handwriting watches her teacher and keenly observe the way s/he is holding the pen, moving his/her fingers, where s/he is using capital letters and does not pay attention to how the teacher is dressed or hows/he walks.

(2)   Retention Process: The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. We need to remember the things observed through some way of using symbols, understanding and organising our observations. Usually, we employ two processes for retention, i.e. storing and rehearsing. Storing the things observed as visuals in our memory and then rehearsing as the sequence of actions mentally. For example, if anyone is trying to bowl like Zahir Khan, then s/he should mentally rehearse the sequences of the bowling actions of Zahir after observing him in person or in TV telecasts and forming a visual image of the actions. Bandura (1977) suggests that the best way to learn from a model is to organize and rehearse the observed behaviour cognitively (mentally with proper thinking) and then act it out.

(3)   Motor Reproduction Process: After we have retained the observed behaviour through rehearsal of the visual images, the behaviour has to be transformed into physical actions. For this, one needs two things. First, s/he must have basic requirements for the action to be performed by him/her. If one desires to be a batsman like Tendulkar, the basic requirement is the physical capability of a batsman. If one is too weak, no matter how perfectly one rehearses the sequences of batting of Tendulkar, one will not be able to perform because it would be difficult to lift and move the bat in the same manner.

The second aspect for transforming the observed behaviour to action is to actually practice the sequence of actions. Having a perfect visual imagery and mental rehearsal of the actions will not help the observer to perform the act spontaneously. To perform effectively, repeated practice combined with continuous feedback on practice and making appropriate corrections after each practice are necessary.

(4)   Motivational Process: We have come across some children who have learnt very well through observational learning as they can vividly describe the steps of action and can perform it perfectly. But often, they do not perform as and when required. In such cases, what they lack is proper motivation to act. The child is required to be motivated especially self-motivated to act. Effects of imitation in observational learning: Superficially, imitation is merely copying the behaviour of a model. There are three categories of imitative behaviour: the modelling effect, the inhibitory disinhibitory effect, and the eliciting effect, which are helpful in observational learning:

(1)   The modelling effect: It involves acquiring new behaviour as a result of observing a model.

(2)  The inhibitory effect: It is concerned with suppression of deviant behaviour of the model usually as a result of seeing the model punished for engaging in the same behaviour. The dis- inhibitory effect is the opposite of it. It occurs when a child observes the model engaged in the previously learnt deviant behaviour being rewarded for it.

(3)   The eliciting effect: It is related to responses of the model not to his/her behavioural characteristics. An illustration of the eliciting effect is the mass behaviour. In any sporting event, one person’s clapping or booing might elicit similar behaviour from others in the crowd. Sometimes, many in the crowd do not know why they behaved in the way they imitated.

A teacher, can use imitation in the classroom/school for enabling students to acquire positive and socially desirable behaviour in the following way :

  • A teacher should demonstrate positive aspects of his behaviour to his students. A teacher’s positive practices like cleanliness, punctuality, truthfulness, and fairness to all have immense impact on the students to imitate. Nevertheless, should not expose his weaknesses to his students.

 

  • While teaching history, social science, literature and telling stories to children, he should
    always highlight the positive aspects of the important characters for imitation by the students.

 

  • When any student imitates positive behaviour, teacher should try to recognize it and provide verbal praise encouraging him/her to repeat it.

Or

Compare the subject-centred approach and competency-based approach. Write any two advantages and limitations of these approaches.

Ans. Comparison between the subject-centred approach and competency-based approach is as follows :

Subject-centred approach- This approach focuses on the delivery of the subject contents by the teacher for students to acquire, i.e. importance is laid on topics/concepts included in the subject, around which all the teaching and activities revolve.

In most of the schools, it is a common practice. These schools follow the syllabus and textbooks both for teaching and learning. The textbook in the subject is considered as the storehouse of all the required concepts, examples and exercises that are required for the teaching-learning process. The means and methods of acquisition of the prescribed concepts may be anything.

Various characteristics of subject-centered approach are as follows:

(1)   Real life situations are rarely taken into account while presenting the subject matters in the classroom.

(2)   The focus is on the content /subject matter, and hence, transaction of the textbooks in the class is ‘be all and end all’ of the classroom activities.

(3)   All classroom interactions are textbook centered.

(4)   The teacher projects himself as a model for the students as s/he has the mastery over the subject matter.

(5)   Textual questions are used for evaluation, which lacks variety.

(6)   The learning needs of these students are supposed to be fulfilled through the textbook.

(7)   There is stress on quantity oriented output rather than quality.

Competency-based approach- Competency is the essential skill, knowledge, attitude and behavior required for effective performance of a real-world task or activity. Competencies are essential skills that one needs to be a successful learner. Competency is a skill performed to a specific standard under specific conditions. A “competency” in its most generic form is any underlying characteristic an individual possesses and uses, which leads to successful performance. It is a clearly defined and measurable activity (cluster of related knowledge and skill) accomplished by an individual. On the other hand, a skill is referred to a task or group of tasks performed to a specific level of proficiency, which often use motor functions and typically require the manipulation of instruments and equipment. However, some skills like ‘adding correctly and quickly’ and ‘appreciating the need for orderly behaviour at home, school and public places’ are knowledge-and attitude-based.

Advantages of subject-centred approach :

(1) Insistence on the students to memorize the facts by repeated reading.

(2) They may produce their answers orally or in written form by reproducing the exact content.

Limitations of subject-centred approach :

(1)   Real life situations are rarely taken into account while presenting the subject matters in the classroom.

(2)   The students answer the questions both orally and in written form by copying from the book.

Advantages of competency-based approach :

(1)   The assessment of results can be used for further improvement of the students. Remedial coaching is helpful for the low achievers and enrichment programme for the high achievers. Since, it aims at mastery of skills by each individual, it caters to the learning needs of all categories of students.

(2)   What the students learn today cannot be forgotten tomorrow as competencies are achieved by the students at the level of mastery under the guidance of a teacher.

Limitations of competency-based approach :

(1)   As pace of learning varies from student to student, it is very difficult on the part of the teacher to help the students to achieve the competencies within the stipulated time.

(2)   The content knowledge of the teacher is very important to help the students achieve the competencies. If the teacher is not proficient, the approach may not work.

Previous Year Papers with Solutions

Q 2. Write the characteristics of Project method. What are its advantages and limitations?

Ans. Project method is based on the view that experiences lead to learning. Hence, learners need to explore their environment, manipulate objects in their environment, and thus, learn from direct experiences instead of hearing someone else’s experiences in some other environment, narrated by teachers. Thus, learning through this method is relevant and meaningful; and based on interests and abilities of learners. Projects may be assigned to individuals or to groups. Following are the various characteristics of project method:

(1)   Activity: A teacher is required to create a learning environment where students begin to learn through self-planning, group discussion and group activities.

(2)   Utility: It is essential that the project method must be useful to the present needs.

(3)   Democratic values: Inculcation of characteristics like working in a group,cooperate with each other, respect each other, value others opinion, assume and share responsibility, lead to development of democratic values. According to Kilpatrick, this is the best method in a democracy.

(4)   Problematic: While beginning to work on any project, students are intended to solve at least one problem.

(5)   Objective: The objectives with which the students pursue the project are intimately associated with their real life situations and would be fulfilling some of their cherished desires.

(6)   Integration: Since a project is based on the real life problems, real experiences for carrying out the project and no real experience involves the knowledge of only one subject. One has to combine the knowledge of many subjects appropriately for successful completion of the project. Integration of subjects learnt in the classroom is the basic requirement in a project work.

(7)   Liberty: In Project Method, learning takes place naturally. So, students perform activities freely.

(8)   Reality: It is necessary to create real life activities for effective learning. Advantages of project method are as follows:

(1)   The student gets the scope to imbibe several social qualities like cooperation and teamwork, group affinity and sacrifice through project work.

(2)   Since all the activities of a project are related to the real life experiences, each of such activities is meaningful to the student. Therefore, meaningful learning is always associated with the project method.

(3)   Completion of the project gives individuals a sense of accomplishment, which in turn, encourages the student for further learning.

(4)   The student enjoys full freedom in conducting a project. This develops selfconfidence to act and also promotes a sense of responsibilities among the students.

(5)   The project method is based on the principles of active learning. The student gets totally involved in the activity which helps in enhancing his/her knowledge, understanding and skills in real life situation and ultimately in developing a holistic personality.

(6)   Interest and motivation for the project activities are spontaneously created and no external persuasion or force is needed to attract the students towards learning.

(7)   The student gets acquainted with the types of work which s/he is expected to perform in future. Thus, the project method helps the student in his/her preparation for a future life.

Following are the limitations of the project method:

(1) It is not always possible to employ it in all subject areas of the curriculum.

(2) It is difficult for an average teacher to plan a project and ensure the participation of all students in it.

(3) There is a lack of proper coordination in the experience/knowledge acquired through project method.

Or

What are the main qualities of an activity? Why memorisation is not considered as an activity?

Ans. Following are the main qualities of an effective learning activity:

  • Spontaneous Involvement: A good activity is such that it attracts the students immediately when it starts and they join in it out of their own interest without any persuasion or compulsion.
  • Focused: Activity for learning is always goal directed and is so designed that the participating students are focused to solve the problem or reach the target and are not easily distracted.
  • Joyful: The test of the efficacy of the activity is when the student derives a sense of satisfaction after its completion. The very nature of a good activity is that it is interesting for the students to conduct and it brings a sense of achievement, provides joy, which ultimately becomes the source of intrinsic motivation for the students to go for the next activity, which might be more challenging.
  • Challenging: An effective activity poses a challenge before the students. It is neither too easy to neglect nor too difficult to attempt for solving. It is moderately difficult which is within the capability of the students to solve but with concentration and with a little more effort.

Memorization is not considered as an activity because memorization is a way of mechanical repetition which has none of the four characteristics of an activity.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English

Assignment-II

Note: Answer the following questions in about 500 words.

Q1. How do you plan to organise your classroom space to make it learner friendly?

Ans. In a teaching-learning classroom, a teacher should manage classroom space appropriately. An organised classroom motivates students for learning. Some of the components of the classroom which we will plan to be organised to make optimum use of classroom space are given as follows:

(1)   Wall space and Bulletin Boards: Wall space and bulletin boards can make a classroom lively and attractive and contribute considerably to student’s independence and achievement.

We will consider the following things when we thinks about wall space and bulletin boards in the classroom:

(a)   When we use student assignments, charts/projects, we will be sure to reserve large ones in prominent place for clear visibility of every student.

(b)   We will draw or paint grade specific activities on the wall, so that students can individually or in the groups do these activities and learn.

(c)   We will designate the space that will contain few exemplars of high quality student work.

(d)   We will keep some wall space that can intentionally remain blank. We will use this area to create a working space for students.

(e)   We will try to find wall space, bulletin board space, where we and students can place objects or materials that are personally interesting.

In addition to the basics of furniture arrangement, wall space and bulletin boards, we will design a rich classroom environment. Classroom walls can be covered with many lists such as, a sign board for attendance, colour chart, list of words, songs, riddles, daily routine, different types of activities, etc. A message board can be placed in a prominent place of the classroom where we and the students can write messages to each other. We will set up a special bookshelf for storybooks, big books, comic books and reference books. Paint the wall with different activities, which are related to the contents/competencies of a particular class. Through these wall activities, students will discuss among themselves in groups and learn from each other. Many times, these wall activities also promote selflearning.

(2)   Learning Materials: Just as the appropriate use of furniture, we will use of floor and wall spaces aid to facilitate learners’ interest in learning activities. A careful planning for placement of learning materials can also help in achieving these goals. We will consider the following when a we think about arranging learning materials in the classroom:

(a)   We will use boxes to keep supplies neatly organised rather than spreading them out on tables or shelves.

(b)   We will store materials that will be used often (e.g. books, paper, pencil, eraser, colour pencils and lab equipment) in places where students can access them easily. Learning materials that students will use less maybe kept in remote areas of the room.

(c)   We will designate and label places in the room where students will keep their completed worksheet. In elementary classrooms, where the teacher teaches multiple subjects, it makes sense to have different boxes or trays for each subject. So we will make seperate space for these and will use icons or colour codes to help students for keeping their work if they are just learning how to read (for example; class 1 students).

(d)   The materials, which we only need, we will be keep it in the least accessible area.

(3)   Classroom’s Furniture and Floor Space: In the classrooms of primary schools, students sit on the floor and on benches in some cases. Depending on the space available and the nature of the activity, we may use different sitting arrangements, e.g. linear rows, semi-circle, circle, face-to-face, etc. we will arrange all furniture in the room and will make such sitting arrangement in such a way that the students can move in room comfortably and we also can easily reach every student as and when required. This is essential for students to feel the personal attention of a teacher and for him/her to observe students individually while they are engaged in the activities.

We will keep a significant portion of the room for shelves, almirah or other furniture where we can keep a variety of TLMs.

Or

Describe the different approaches of categorising TLM with examples.

Ans. Different approaches of categorising of Teaching-Learning-Materials are:

(1)   Real Objects/Experiences: By directly using real objects, persons and events around them, the students get first hand experiences. However, possession of objects may not lead to learning. Teachers must try to show the real objects to the students while teaching, so that they get direct experience of the objects with reference to the concept they are expected to learn. But for reasons given below, it is not always possible to bring the real objects to the classroom.

(a)   Size of the object: Too large in size to carry or to store in the classroom or too small to be seen by the students.

(b)   Safety: If dangerous, species like snake, scorpion, etc. are to be brought into the classroom could affect the safety of students.

(c)   Cost: Objects can become too expensive for class use.

In teaching Environmental Studies in lower classes and Science in higher classes, many direct experiences can be given to the students for effective understanding. Children get direct experience from several objects or places existing in their immediate environment like observing real flowers, leaves, plants, insects; taking a walk in the forest and collecting useful forest products; going to different organisations like Panchayat Office, Bank, Post Office and observe their functioning; setting and maintaining an aquarium. Direct and concrete experiences help students understanding of difficult concepts. Hence, attempts ought to be made to give students as many experiences as
possible.

(2)   Prepared TLM: Teachers are familiar with materials specifically prepared for teaching and learning particular subjects or topics. Maps, charts, pictures, models, toys, marbles, coloured sticks, flash cards, number and alphabet cards are examples of some of the most common prepared TLMs known and used by teachers. For our classroom requirements, we acquire these materials in two ways: (i) procuring from the market, and (ii) developing by ourselves or sometimes involving students.

Standard TLMs like maps, globes, charts, scales, measuring tapes are usually purchased from the market. The cost of the materials varies according to their quality. Since most of these materials are manufactured and are finished products, they have better look and are comparatively more durable. Due to this, the teachers everywhere prefer them to purchase.

Teachers not only purchase finished products like maps, charts, pictures, etc. from the market to use as TLMs but also purchase materials like drawing sheets, sketch pens, colouring materials, gum, scissor, ruler, etc. to develop/prepare TLMs by themselves and by the involvement of students.

But still teachers develop TLMs even when they are available in market because they cannot afford to purchase all the materials that they require and sometimes typical materials that they need in their classrooms are not readily available in the market. This may include labelled charts, some specific labelled diagrams, etc.

Such typical diagrams or pictures, which teachers and their students need, may not be available in the market. Very often, they need less effort to prepare TLMs like folding a paper with a shape or a diagram or graph sketched on the board on the data brought by students. Such prepared TLMs have more relevance than the purchased readymade materials. Further, if they are involving students in developing TLMs, they might be observing their pleasure while working in such activities. What is more important is that in the process of planning and preparing the TLMs for use in the classrooms, the students are acquiring concepts with proper understanding and without the
rigor of instruction or memorisation.

Further, on the basis of sensory experience, the TLMs can be categorised as follows:

(1)   Audio Aids: These refer to the aids, which call upon the auditory senses, and thus, help the learners to learn through listening. For instance, radio, tape-recorder, audio cassette player, language laboratory, etc.

(2)   Visual Aids: These refer to the aids, which call upon the visual senses, and thus, help the learners to learn through viewing. The important aids under this head are Chart, Blackboard, Maps, Pictures, Models, Textbooks, Slide projector, Transparency, Flash-cards, Print materials, etc.

(3)   Audiovisual Aids: These refer to the aids, which call upon the devices or materials that require the auditory as well as visual senses and helping the students to learn through listening as well as viewing. Examples under this head include TV, Computer, VCD player, Virtual Classroom, Multimedia and other computer-assisted instruction materials.

Besides these, another classification of TLMs is based on the following:

(1)   Projected-aids: These include movies, magic lantern, micro-projectors and projection with the overhead projectors, LCD projectors, etc.

(2)   Non-projected-aids: These include chalk board, felt board, bulletin board, photographs, posters, maps, charts, globe, specimens, textbook illustrations, etc.

(3)   Experiential aids: These include field trips, educational tours, visit to important institutions and industries, observing experiments, demonstrations and natural phenomena.

Important Questions with Solutions

Q.2 What are the advantages and limitations of computer assisted learning in the classroom?

Ans. Following are the advantages of computer assisted learning in the classroom:

(1)   CAL is individualised, that is each student is free to work at his own place, totally unaffected by the performance of any other students.

(2)   Information is presented in a structured form. It proves useful in the study of a subject where there is hierarchy of facts and rules.

(3)   CAL forces active participation on the part of the student, which contrasts with the more passive role in reading a book or attending a lecture.

(4)   CAL utilises a reporting system that provides the student with a clear picture of his progress. Thus, students can identify the subject areas in which they have improved and in which they need improvement.

(5)   By enabling students to manipulate concepts directly and explore the results of such manipulation, it reduces the time taken to comprehend difficult concepts.

(6)   CAL provides a lot of drilling which can prove useful for low aptitude students and through which high-aptitude students can be escaped.

(7)   CAL can enhance reasoning and decision-making abilities.

Limitations of computer assisted learning in the classroom are as follows:

(1)   CAL packages may not fulfill expectations of teachers. Objectives and methods decided by the CAL author and of a teacher may differ.

(2)   Motivating and training teachers to make use of computers in education is a challenging task. They may have fear of this new device. They may be unwilling to spend extra time for preparation, selection and use of CAL packages. It may also be perceived as a threat to their job.

(3)   There are administrative problems associated with computer installation. The problems particularly related to the physical location of the computer resources, the cost of hardware maintenance and insurance and time-tabling.

(4)   The rapid development of hardware makes it difficult to select a system before it becomes obsolete. If a new system is installed by a maximum number of institutions, they may not get courseware required for the system and courseware developed so far may become useless.

(5)   Computers can be very expensive to provide and maintain. Many schools may find it difficult or impossible to provide this resource for students. If only limited numbers of computers are available, students may have to share them among small groups, which can undermine the potential benefits of computer learning.

(6)   Content covered by a certain CAL package may become outdated. A very high cost is involved in the development of these packages. If the course is outdated, the resources involved in its development will be a waste.

(7)   Though simulation permits execution of chemical and biological experiments, hand-son experience is missing. Moreover, CAL packages cannot develop manual skills such as handling an apparatus, working with a machine, etc.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English

Assignment-III

Note: Answer the following question in about 1000 words.

Q.1   Suppose you are teaching in a tribal dominated school. You do not know the mother tongue of those children. How can you organise activities that children will learn?

Ans.  A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society. Since Independence, several efforts have been made for the overall development leading to the mainstreaming of tribal people. Still the problems of tribal people continue to be a matter of concern. Children of Scheduled Tribes often face difficulties in learning because of their social, ethnic, economic and cultural differences. As a teacher in a tribal dominated school, we will organise following activities that children will learn:

Learning cultural knowledge from the community: First we will learnthe knowledge of the child’s community. So we will identify ourselves with students’ community and will talk with the community people, discuss with them on different socio-cultural milieus and attend festivals in the community.

Using mother tongue as medium of instruction: If we teach a child having 5-6 years of exposure to his/her mother tongue in a language unknown to him/her, he/she may not understand anything that we say. For example: a Santali child in class I can understand ‘alah’ but not ‘house’, merom’ but not ‘goat’, ‘daka’ but not rice. Though he/she can elaborate 5-10 sentences about his/her house (alah) in his/her mother tongue but may not understand one sentence about house in a language foreign to him/her. So we will use of mother tongue (home language) as a medium of instruction not only makes the child understand the concept but also brings self confidence in him/her.

Integrating local knowledge in learning teaching process: No textbook can incorporate all the local knowledge from different areas of a state or a country. We will start with local knowledge to teach each concept and link them with the textbook knowledge. For example: If we have to teach ‘unit of measurement’ in mathematics then we will start with the non-standard units that are used in day to day life such as sero, mana, pana, kahana etc. After that we will teach the standard units of measurement like Kg, Km, Litre etc.

Using socio-cultural components in learning-teaching process: A community has its own life style, own social values, socio-political organization and religious beliefs. They have their own food habits, dress and ornaments, agriculture and industry. They have knowledge on every aspect of life and this base knowledge need to be taken into account to facilitate learning. So we will impart further knowledge based on their cultural elements.

Using folk materials in classroom learning: Every community has its folk stories, songs, riddles, drawing and painting, puzzles etc. While facilitating learning, these materials may be used in their full potentials because these materials not only facilitate for easy and meaningful acquisition of learning outcomes but also make the learning process pleasurable.

Adapting textbook with socio-cultural knowledge: Adapting the text book means, bringing the socio-cultural elements in the text of the text books and preparing alternative text wherever necessary for children’s experiential learning.

Learning of children’s mother tongue by the teacher: If a teacher knows children’s mother tongue, his/her job will be easier even though it is difficult to learn language of each child. Hence we will learn languages from children’s family and community to talk with them in their language.

Involving communities in school activities: A good teacher always uses the community resources. Community involvement in school management and classroom activities brings a positive change in the performance of children in the school. A community member can be involved to teach students local art and craft, songs and music, fables and stories, and other good practices of the community.

Or

Q. Consider that there are few CWSN children in your classroom, as a teacher how can you take care of such children in the classroom for facilitating their learning?

Ans.   A group that forms a very important part of equity issue at the elementary level is the Children with Special Needs (CWSN). There may be some children in the classroom with mild disabilities like loco-motor disability, visual impairment, hearing impairment, lower level of intellectual functioning and deficits in adaptive behavior. As a teacher, we have to deal with these children to improve their learning and performance along with other children in the classroom. The key points, which we should take care of impaired children during a classroom transaction, are as follows:

(1)   In classroom, suitable adjustments in view of the disability may be made in seating arrangements. The arrangement need to be such as not to create any physical hindrance to the child.

(2)   We should accept such children in class ensuring that no critical comment on their disabilities is given by anybody in the class.

(3)   In the assessment of performance of these children, particularly for grading or marking, their disability needs to be given due consideration.

(4)   Children with such disability should be involved in all learning activities as an equal partner with his/her peers. It may be ensured that, they have adequate opportunities to participate in

For Example,

(i)   We will provide the following kind of help to the education of visually impaired children:

(1)   provide training in listening with comprehension in order to reduce the reading load on the child with visual problems;

(2)   adjust such children in front rows so that they can read from the blackboard with ease;

(3)   provide opportunities to them for participation in physical education programmers and a book-stand may be arranged for the partially sighted children;

(4)   provide time schedule for a radio broadcast and encouraged them to listen and wherever facilities are available, audio cassettes may be used; and

(5)   write in bold letters which are legible and read aloud what s/he is writing on the blackboard.

(ii)   We will keep the following to meet the educational needs of the children with hearing and speech impairment:

(1)   While demonstrating model or reading from the textbook, we will ensure that our lip movements are visible to such children so that they may be able to supplement listening by lipreading.

(2)   If speech disorder is due to an organic defect in the speech mechanism, medical help is required. Speech defects arising out of hearing problems can be corrected through speech training, using reinforced drill and practice.

(3)   Children with hearing problems should be seated in the front row so that they can listen what a teacher speaks, with ease.

(4)   While speaking and writing simultaneously on the blackboard, we should face the students rather than speak with face towards the blackboard. For the same reason, we may avoid moving while speaking.

(5)   Additional visuals, individually or in groups, may be used to supplement general teaching input.

(6)   Peers may be encouraged to interact with these children and help one another in listening.

(7)   We are required to use a reasonable level of pitch while speaking. We should avoid mumbling and speaking too fast.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English

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