Boston Tea Party, the Key Event for the Revolutionary War
The Boston Tea Party was the key-event for the Revolutionary War. With this act, the colonists started the violent part of the revolution. It was the first try of the colonists, to rebel with violence against their own government. The following events were created by the snowball effect. There, all the colonists realized the first time, which they were treated wrong by the British government. It was an important step towards the independence dream, which was resting in the head of each colonist. They all flew from their mother country to start a new life in a new world, but the British government didn't give them the possibility by controlling them.
The events leading to the Boston Tea Party began already ten years before (1763), when the English won the French-and-Indian War. The king of Britain passed taxes on the colonies to make up for the loss of money because of the war. He did it in a line of acts, called the Sugar Act (tax to protect and secure the colonists) and the Stamp Act ( tax on all licenses, newspapers and business papers ). The colonists reacted with protests against those acts, what made the British Parliament to repeal the taxes within 5 months. Then they (the government) passed taxes on lead, paint, paper and tea. These acts were called the Townsend Duties, but the colonists called them the "Insidious Acts". Mass meetings were held and people tried to influence others not to buy English imported goods anymore. In the end the parliament removed all the taxes except for tea. Actually the colonists easily didn't want to accept, to pay taxes to a government, they don't really belong to anymore. Although this tax on the tea cost a colonial family just pennies a year. Sam Adams, a kind of leader of the colonists, figured out, that the tax could be raised or lowered by the parliament at will. (Sam Adams: "The power to tax is the power to destroy!" ).He also pointed out, that the colonists had no representation in the Parliament, and that they can't be taxed without having a representation in there, to care for their interests and wills. However, most people drank tea smuggled in from the Netherlands, so they didn't care very much whether the parliament raises or lowers the taxes. When the East India Tea company realized, that the colonists were drinking cheap, smuggled tea, the Parliament gave them ( the company ) the monopoly to export tea without paying duties. That way the tea could be much cheaper than the Holland tea, even with the taxes. This act was called the Tea Act, which was of great importance for the following Boston Tea Party.
The colonists reacted to this act by holding meetings to discuss it. Supporter of the revolution (just to name some of them: John Adams, John Hancock, Dr.
Joseph Warren) wrote letters of protest to the government's officials, but they didn't achieve anything. The tea ships arriving in Boston still had to pay the full British tax. In September, 1773, a radical group of colonists found out, that three East India tea cargo ships, laden full with tea, were heading for Boston under full sail. They knew, that if the ships got unloaded and the tax would be paid, it would be a crushing defeat.
The same radical group wanted to make the agents of the East India Company resign from their job in front of a big crowd, but this part didn't work. Over the following weeks speeches in form of propaganda were made, to get all colonists informed about the events. People even quitted drinking tea (what they did for their whole life ) and started drinking coffee.
The actual event On November 18th, 1773, the ships arrived. Pamphlets were posted to arrange a meeting between the citizens and the governor ( Hutchison ), called the "Committee of Correspondence". They wanted him to call the ships back to Britain. When he didn't agree, a bunch of men, disguised as Indians, went and stormed towards the harbor, planning to throw the tea into the bay. They divided in three groups, each of them with one leader. After they made the captain and his crew getting down below, they grabbed all the boxes of tea, opened them and threw them overboard. Even some members of the crew helped them to destroy the tea. A big crowed was created in the harbor, some of them even tried to steal some tea. Altogether they destroyed 340 chests. At 10:00 pm the event was over, and the streets of Boston were empty again. The next day everybody was happy, and plans were made, to public the important event in all colonies of America.
The reactions of the British Government were called the "Intolerable Acts". 4000 British soldiers closed the Boston Harbor, so that Boston couldn't get any food or other important goods. But this act failed it's mission, because the other colonists sent the Boston citizens food and other life important goods. They also created a militia to protect themselves of the British army. They also weren't allowed to hold any meetings in Boston anymore. These tries to get the colonies under their control again were the last ones with a view of success.
On December 16, 1773, American patriots dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded the vessels of the East Indian Company docked in the Boston harbor and dumped all the tea that was on the three ships into the ocean. They emptied 342 chests of tea which was valued at more than 10,000 pounds. This event became known as the "Boston Tea Party."
The Boston Tea Party was a reaction to the Tea Act of 1773 that was passed by Parliament to save the British East India Company from bankruptcy. The Tea Act essentially eliminated all taxes on tea except the three pence Townshend tax. More importantly, it offered Americans tea at a lower price than that of the colonial smugglers. Hence, the British East India Company would be saved from bankruptcy, the colonial smugglers would be out of business, and the principle of parliamentary taxation would be upheld.
However, there were rumors that the Tea Act created an illegal monopoly so resistance to the importation of tea was encouraged throughout the colonies. If the people bought from the East India Company, it would give that company a monopoly of the American tea trade and establish the right of Parliament to raise a colonial revenue by means of port duties. Since the patriots believed that the cheap price of tea would be too much of a temptation to the people, the patriots took steps to maneuver Britain into a difficult position.
The patriots decided to reject tea shipments and they demanded that tea ships be permitted to return to England without paying the duty required by law. Over 5,000 townspeople of Boston and surrounding towns gathered at Old South Meeting House to plead with the governor to send the ships back to England. However, Governor Hutchinson refused and it was that night, December 16, that sixty men dressed as Mohawk Indians and went over to the Boston harbor. There they boarded the three ships of the East India Company and dumped over 10,000 pounds of tea into the Boston harbor. Parliament was furious and retaliated by passing the Coercive Acts, one of which closed the Boston harbor. Thus, the Boston Tea Party marked the beginning of violence in the dispute between mother country and colonies.