Research Paper Post Partum

1. O'Hara M. W., McCabe J. E. Postpartum depression: current status and future directions. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 2013;9:379–407. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185612.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

2. Heron J., Haque S., Oyebode F., Craddock N., Jones I. A longitudinal study of hypomania and depression symptoms in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Bipolar Disorders. 2009;11(4):410–417. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2009.00685.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

3. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th. Washington, DC, USA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.

4. World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. World Health Organization; 2010. http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/

5. Sharma V., Mazmanian D. The DSM-5 peripartum specifier: prospects and pitfalls. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2014;17(2):171–173. doi: 10.1007/s00737-013-0406-3.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

6. Bloch M., Schmidt P. J., Danaceau M., Murphy J., Nieman L., Rubinow D. R. Effects of gonadal steroids in women with a history of postpartum depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000;157(6):924–930. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.6.924.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

7. Buttner M. M., O'Hara M. W., Watson D. The structure of women's mood in the early postpartum. Assessment. 2012;19(2):247–256. doi: 10.1177/1073191111429388.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

8. O'Hara M. W., Schlechte J. A., Lewis D. A., Wright E. J. Prospective study of postpartum blues: biologic and psychosocial factors. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1991;48(9):801–806. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810330025004.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

9. Horowitz J. A., Goodman J. A longitudinal study of maternal postpartum depression symptoms. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice. 2004;18(2-3):149–163. doi: 10.1891/rtnp.18.2.149.61285.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

10. Vliegen N., Casalin S., Luyten P. The course of postpartum depression: a review of longitudinal studies. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 2014;22(1):1–22. doi: 10.1097/hrp.0000000000000013.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

11. Miller E. S., Hoxha D., Wisner K. L., Gossett D. R. The impact of perinatal depression on the evolution of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2014;18(3):457–461. doi: 10.1007/s00737-014-0476-x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

12. Russell E. J., Fawcett J. M., Mazmanian D. Risk of obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnant and postpartum women: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2013;74(4):377–385. doi: 10.4088/jcp.12r07917.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

13. Hendrick V., Altshuler L., Strouse T., Grosser S. Postpartum and nonpostpartum depression: differences in presentation and response to pharmacologic treatment. Depression and Anxiety. 2000;11(2):66–72.[PubMed]

14. O'Brien M., Buikstra E., Hegney D. The influence of psychological factors on breastfeeding duration. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2008;63(4):397–408. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04722.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

15. Jennings K. D., Ross S., Popper S., Elmore M. Thoughts of harming infants in depressed and nondepressed mothers. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1999;54(1-2):21–28. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(98)00185-2.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

16. Pope C. J., Xie B., Sharma V., Campbell M. K. A prospective study of thoughts of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the postpartum period in women with mood disorders. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2013;16(6):483–488. doi: 10.1007/s00737-013-0370-y.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

17. Wisner K. L., Sit D. K. Y., McShea M. C., et al. Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70(5):490–498. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.87.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

18. Lindahl V., Pearson J. L., Colpe L. Prevalence of suicidality during pregnancy and the postpartum. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2005;8(2):77–87. doi: 10.1007/s00737-005-0080-1.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

19. Pope C. J., Sharma V., Mazmanian D. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of postpartum bipolar depression. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 2014;14(1):19–28. doi: 10.1586/14737175.2014.846219.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

20. Field T. Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: a review. Infant Behavior & Development. 2010;33(1):1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.005.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

21. Korhonen M., Luoma I., Salmelin R., Tamminen T. A longitudinal study of maternal prenatal, postnatal and concurrent depressive symptoms and adolescent well-being. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2012;136(3):680–692. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.10.007.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

22. Morgan V. A., Croft M. L., Valuri G. M., et al. Intellectual disability and other neuropsychiatric outcomes in high-risk children of mothers with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar major depression. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2012;200(4):282–289. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.093070.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

23. Moehler E., Brunner R., Wiebel A., Reck C., Resch F. Maternal depressive symptoms in the postnatal period are associated with long-term impairment of mother-child bonding. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2006;9(5):273–278. doi: 10.1007/s00737-006-0149-5.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

24. Spinelli M. G. Maternal infanticide associated with mental illness: prevention and the promise of saved lives. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2004;161(9):1548–1557. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.9.1548.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

25. Ganjekar S., Desai G., Chandra P. S. A comparative study of psychopathology, symptom severity, and short-term outcome of postpartum and nonpostpartum mania. Bipolar Disorders. 2013;15(6):713–718. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12076.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

26. Robertson E., Jones I., Haque S., Holder R., Craddock N. Risk of puerperal and non-puerperal recurrence of illness following bipolar affective puerperal (post-partum) psychosis. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2005;186(3):258–259. doi: 10.1192/bjp.186.3.258.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

27. Brockington I. Postpartum psychiatric disorders. The Lancet. 2004;363(9405):303–310. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(03)15390-1.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

28. Figueiredo B., Canário C., Field T. Breastfeeding is negatively affected by prenatal depression and reduces postpartum depression. Psychological Medicine. 2014;44(5):927–936. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713001530.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

29. Dias C. C., Figueiredo B. Breastfeeding and depression: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2015;171:142–154. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.09.022.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

30. Seimyr L., Edhborg M., Lundh W., Sjögren B. In the shadow of maternal depressed mood: experiences of parenthood during the first year after childbirth. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2004;25(1):23–34. doi: 10.1080/01674820410001737414.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

31. Hamdan A., Tamim H. The relationship between postpartum depression and breastfeeding. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 2012;43(3):243–259. doi: 10.2190/PM.43.3.d.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

32. Chaudron L. H., Klein M. H., Remington P., Palta M., Allen C., Essex M. J. Predictors, prodromes and incidence of postpartum depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2001;22(2):103–112. doi: 10.3109/01674820109049960.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

33. Alder E. M., Cox J. L. Breast feeding and post-natal depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1983;27(2):139–144. doi: 10.1016/0022-3999(83)90090-9.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

34. Alder E., Bancroft J. The relationship between breast feeding persistence, sexuality and mood in postpartum women. Psychological Medicine. 1988;18(2):389–396. doi: 10.1017/S0033291700007935.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

35. Groër M. W. Differences between exclusive breastfeeders, formula-feeders, and controls: a study of stress, mood, and endocrine variables. Biological Research for Nursing. 2005;7(2):106–117. doi: 10.1177/1099800405280936.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

36. Dennis C.-L., McQueen K. Does maternal postpartum depressive symptomatology influence infant feeding outcomes? Acta Paediatrica. 2007;96(4):590–594. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00184.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

37. Barnes J., Stein A., Smith T., Pollock J. I. Extreme attitudes to body shape, social and psychological factors and a reluctance to breast feed. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 1997;90(10):551–559.[PMC free article][PubMed]

38. Jacobson S. W., Jacobson J. L., Frye K. F. Incidence and correlates of breast-feeding in socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Pediatrics. 1991;88(4):728–736.[PubMed]

39. McKee M. D., Zayas L. H., Jankowski K. R. B. Breastfeeding intention and practice in an urban minority population: relationship to maternal depressive symptoms and mother-infant closeness. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. 2004;22(3):167–181. doi: 10.1080/02646830410001723751.[Cross Ref]

40. Lee H. J., Rubio M. R., Elo I. T., McCollum K. F., Chung E. K., Culhane J. F. Factors associated with intention to breastfeed among low-income, inner-city pregnant women. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2005;9(3):253–261. doi: 10.1007/s10995-005-0008-5.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

41. Insaf T. Z., Fortner R. T., Pekow P., Dole N., Markenson G., Chasan-Taber L. Prenatal stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms as predictors of intention to breastfeed among Hispanic women. Journal of Women's Health. 2011;20(8):1183–1192. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2010.2276.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

42. Fairlie T. G., Gillman M. W., Rich-Edwards J. High pregnancy-related anxiety and prenatal depressive symptoms as predictors of intention to breastfeed and breastfeeding initiation. Journal of Women's Health. 2009;18(7):945–953. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2008.0998.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

43. Pippins J. R., Brawarsky P., Jackson R. A., Fuentes-Afflick E., Haas J. S. Association of breastfeeding with maternal depressive symptoms. Journal of Women's Health. 2006;15(6):754–762. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2006.15.754.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

44. Borra C., Iacovou M., Sevilla A. New evidence on breastfeeding and postpartum depression: the importance of understanding women’s intentions. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2015;19(4):897–907. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1591-z.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

45. Davey H. L., Tough S. C., Adair C. E., Benzies K. M. Risk factors for sub-clinical and major postpartum depression among a community cohort of canadian women. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2011;15(7):866–875. doi: 10.1007/s10995-008-0314-8.

Postpartum Depression (PPD)


1.0 Overview

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a condition mostly associated with women as opposed to men. In most cases, among those who are infected with this dejection, it has been established that PPD becomes evident within the first four weeks after childbirth and in some instances after a miscarriage. This paper will focus on three main objectives, which are to determine (1) the causes of PPD, (2) the most explicit symptoms of the condition, and (3) the treatment or remedial actions that could be taken to avert or alleviate PPD. Below is a detailed synthesis of each objective.

2.0 Causes of PPD

According to an investigation by Mayo Clinic, the PPD condition is not ascribed to any particular cause. There are, however, beliefs that the despondency could result from physiological changes, emotional factors and lifestyle influences underpinning around a woman after giving birth or a miscarriage. Physiological changes pertain to the rapid drop in the levels of estrogen and progesterone in a woman’s body after childbirth, thus causing effects such as bodily weakness and drainage. The new sense of being a mother and the worries of how to take care of the child constitute the emotional factors. Finally, financial problems attributed to matrimony and a demanding baby is a part of the lifestyle changes that could cause the devastation of PPD.

3.0 Symptoms

There are several characteristics, mostly mood swings, which could serve as potential indicators of the presence of the PPD condition in a woman. Nonetheless, the presence of fewer than three of these symptoms is not enough support to warrant leaping into the conclusion that a person is suffering from this kind of dejection. Only a combination of more than three symptoms, usually after childbirth, could be a true manifestation of PPD in a person. Below are some of the major symptoms of PPD, but the list is not exhaustive:

  • Emotional drainage and exhaustion,
  • Recurrent thoughts to commit suicide,
  • A feeling of worthlessness,
  • Consistent insomnia and sleep deprivation,
  • Hatred towards the baby, and
  • Lack of food appetite.

4.0 Treatment for PPD

Postpartum depression is not a permanent condition and can even dissipate without any remedial measures taken. This own dissipation can take years and hence there is a need to curb this condition for those who cannot withstand the long waiting. The followings are some of the recommended healing practices in restoring normalcy.

  • Counseling. The patient should visit a psychiatrist for counseling and advice on how to manage the condition. This could be very effective in correcting the feeling of worthlessness and hatred towards the baby.
  • Hormone therapy. This approach could prove effective where the cause of the depression is established to be a rapid drop in the level of estrogen in the body, where the hormone could be replaced, thus averting the condition. However, it is important to note that the success of this method is limited and may not guarantee absolute success.
  • Antidepressants. The use of antidepressants requires carefulness because, though it is a proven treatment, breastfeeding mothers can pass the drug to the child. Moreover, antidepressants should only be taken after visiting a physician. This helps to avoid a self-prescription that is not in tandem with the level of depression suffered.

5.0 Conclusion

Postpartum is a manageable condition that could be easily averted if a corrective action is taken immediately. The right action involves visiting a health professional and avoiding the habits of self-diagnosing and prescribing.

Essay writing help

We have built the ultimate resource for high school and college essay writing. Our manuals will help you write:

  • Narrative essays
  • Descriptive essays
  • Expository essays
  • Informative essays
  • Persuasive essays

College writing guides

For college or university student, we have built an immense amount of tips for these written assignments:

  • Reaction/Response papers
  • Position papers
  • Reports
  • Research papers
  • Bibliographies

0 thoughts on “Research Paper Post Partum

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *