If you are looking for a topic on which to write your drug abuse essay and the consequences of drugs, then review the topics below:
- The Size of Substance Misuse and Limitations on Data for Substance Abuse.
- Different Trends Relating to Drug Use and How It Has Changed Over Time.
- History of Psychoactive Substances in the Country of Your Choosing.
- Reasons Why Individuals Use Drugs.
- Different Categories of Drugs.
- Government Drug Misuse Strategy and Legislation.
- Attitudes and Values toward Drug Use.
- Key Areas of Response to Drug Use.
- Signs and Symptoms of Misuse.
- Popular Drug Use Paraphernalia.
- Range of Services Available for Drug Misuse and Organizations Available for Help.
- Issues Associated with Alcohol Misuse.
- Different Drinking Habits and the Effects of Alcohol Consumption.
- Myths about Drug and Alcohol Use and Ways to Respond to Alcohol Abuse.
- What Communities Can Do to Help Fight Substance Abuse.
- Why Community Responses Are Necessary and What Barriers Exist for Community Based Action Plans.
- Personality as a Factor in Drug Abuse.
- Importance of Knowing First Aid in Helping People Fighting Drug Misuse.
- Barriers in Effective Communication with Young People.
- The Screening Process for Drug Use and Its Effectiveness.
These topics are designed to suit the facts on drug use and its consequences because together they make a perfect paper. There is a guide on expository essay writing as well that can be used to better understand the structure of the paper. Below is a sample essay on one of the topics listed above:
Sample Expository Essay on the Personality as a Factor in Drug Use
An article published in PsychologyToday.com in 2009 stresses personality as a powerful factor that helps answer why some are prone to abusing drugs and becoming addicted while others aren’t. According to the author, an addictive personality trait, owned by about 10-15% of people, makes them prone to becoming addicts. However, according to an article published four years earlier in MedicalNewsToday.com, among people with similar personality traits some are known to develop an addiction while others aren’t quite as prone. The article accounts for this phenomenon by claiming that favourable environmental and cultural conditions can help offset addictive personality traits.
There is a complex interplay of societal, community, peer, family and individual factors accounting for negative behaviour such as substance abuse, according to the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (2000). Globally, it has been observed that a member of a family with a history of drug abuse and dependence is more prone to drug abuse. This finding is corroborated in many studies, such as Wu et al. (1996), Wester-meyer and Neider (1994) and Madianos et al. (1995).
In other studies, Jauhar and Watson (1995), and Curran et al have found the same pattern to occur with respect to alcohol abuse and dependence. Bierut, Dinwiddie, and Regleiter (1998) have established the significant influence of genetics in alcohol dependence, while Tsuang et al. (1996) have established the same causal link between genes and drug dependence. Thus, family environment is instrumental, both in promoting drug abuse and dependence and in providing protection from it. In this section, a few of these factors have been reviewed. The limitations concomitant with the chosen research design render a large number of these findings as purely correlative rather than causal. Below are several factors associated with family environment.
Physical and sexual abuse in childhood: despite its design limitations, relating either to use of clinical samples or retrospective designs, research suggests that childhood abuse appears as a risk factor with regard to substance abuse. Thus, risk of alcohol abuse in adulthood is enhanced in women subjected to physical or sexual abuse in childhood, as delineated in studies done by Langeland and Hartgers (1998) and Rice et al. (2001). Curiously, with regard to males research points to contradictory evidence; perusal of studies done by Galaif et al. (2001) and Langeland and Hartgers (1998) shows this contrast. Jarvis, Copeland and Walton (1998) go a step further, establishing direct correlation between adolescent drug abuse among women and childhood sexual abuse, accompanied by the extrapolation that such drug use could be in the form of self-medication aimed at reducing emotional pain induced via childhood abuse.
Family practices and attitudes relating to substance abuse: Lane et al (2001) stressed the importance of peer influences leading to substance use among youth; however, one cannot neglect the significance of family practices and attitudes. The predominance of parental influence over that of peers is especially true in Hispanic/Latino youth, as established by Coombs, Paulson, and Richardson (1991). The frequency of youth substance use is greatly influenced by use of substances by family members and family members’ attitude with regard to it. For instance, Lane et al (2001) have referred to a household survey on substance use done in 1997 that revealed the lowest incidence of substance use among youth in the age group of 12-17 years. Said youth were said to perceive their parents as being “very upset” with binge drinking, cigarettes and marijuana. Swaim, Nemeth, and Oetting (1995) have highlighted a similar reduction in alcohol use among girls in Hungary, owing to strong family sanctions against such substance abuse. Boyle et al. (2001) have established that drug use by an older sibling is a greater influence than parental drug use in leading to youth substance abuse.
Problematic relations with family members and partners: the risk of substance abuse has been found to increase in direct proportion to problematic relations with family members and partners. Lane et al (2001) have brought attention to the fact that youth who had several weekly arguments with their parents showed a greater tendency to have used marijuana during the previous year than others who had one argument a week or month, as revealed by a national household survey done. Studies have established that the direct correlation between problematic relations with family members and drug abuse by adolescents manifests internationally. Women in Zagreb were more prone to alcoholism due to problematic relations with family members and partners. Other studies have shown how more than 75 of 100 Scottish males admitted for alcohol abuse blamed failed marriages and family neglect on their alcoholism.
Barlow, K. (2000). Substance misuse: A rationale for compulsion.
Bourgois, P. (2008). The Mystery of Marijuana: Science and the U.S. War on Drugs. Substance Use & Misuse, 43(3), 581-583. doi: 10.1080/10826080701884853
Bretteville-Jensen, A. (2006). To Legalize or Not To Legalize? Economic Approaches to the Decriminalization of Drugs. Substance Use & Misuse, 41(4), 555-565. doi: 10.1080/10826080500521565
Cozic, C. P. (1998). Illegal drugs. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.
Gorta, A. (2009). Illegal drug use by police officers: Using research and investigations to inform prevention strategies. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 11(1), 85-96. doi: 10.1350/ijps.2009.11.1.112
Grossman, M., Chaloupka, F. J., & Shim, K. (2002). Illegal Drug Use And Public Policy. Health Affairs, 21(2), 134-145. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.21.2.134
Harrison, L. (1993). Substance misuse: Designing social work training. London: Central Council for Education and Training in Social Work.
Miller, K., Hoffman, J., Barnes, G., Sabo, D., Melnick, M., & Farrell, M. (2005). Adolescent Anabolic Steroid Use, Gender, Physical Activity, and Other Problem Behaviors*. Substance Use & Misuse, 40(11), 1637-1657. doi: 10.1080/10826080500222727
Trathen, B. (2003). Guidelines for the best practice treatment of substance misuse. [England?]: B. Trathen.
White, H. R., Tice, P. C., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2002). Illegal Acts Committed by Adolescents Under the Influence of Alcohol and Drugs. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39(2), 131-152. doi: 10.1177/002242780203900201
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Tags: drug abuse essay topics, expository essay ideas, expository essay topics
This article is about the mistreatment of people, systems or animals. For other uses, see Abuse (disambiguation).
"Mistreat" redirects here. For other uses, see Mistreat (disambiguation).
For abuse within the Wikipedia community, see: Wikipedia:Long-term abuse.
Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or verbal maltreatment, injury, assault, violation, rape, unjust practices, crimes, or other types of aggression.
Types and contexts of abuse
Abuse of authority
Main article: Abuse of authority
Abuse of authority, in the form of political corruption, is the use of legislated or otherwise authorised powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties.
Abuse of authority is separated from abuse of power in that the act is originally condoned, but is extended beyond that initially conceived and is in not all cases
Abuse of corpse
- See: Necrophilia
Abuse of discretion
Main article: Abuse of discretion
An abuse of discretion is a failure to take into proper consideration, the facts and laws relating to a particular matter; an arbitrary or unreasonable departure from precedent and settled judicial custom.
Abuse of dominance
- See: Abuse of dominance
Abuse of indulgences
- See: Abuse of indulgences
Abuse of information
Main articles: Breach of confidence, Copyright infringement, Insider trading, and Plagiarism
Abuse of information typically involves a breach of confidence or plagiarism, or extending the confidence of information beyond those authorised.
In the financial world, Insider trading can also be considered a misuse of internal information that gives an unfair advantage in investment.
Abuse of power
Main article: Abuse of power
Abuse of power, in the form of "malfeasance in office" or "official misconduct," is the commission of an unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties. Malfeasance in office is often grounds for a for cause removal of an elected official by statute or recall election.
Abuse of process
Main article: Abuse of process
A cause of action in tort arising from one party making a malicious and deliberate misuse or perversion of regularly issued court process (civil or criminal) not justified by the underlying legal action.
Abuse of rank
Main article: Rankism
Rankism (also called abuse of rank) is treating people of a lower rank in an abusive, discriminatory, or exploitative way.Robert W. Fuller claims that rankism includes the abuse of the power inherent in superior rank, with the view that rank-based abuse underlies many other phenomena such as bullying, racism, sexism, and homophobia.
Abuse of statistics
- See: Abuse of statistics
Abuse of the system
- See: Abuse#Gaming the system
Abuse of trust
- See: Position of trust
Main article: Abusive supervision
Abusive supervision is most commonly studied in the context of the workplace, although can arise in other areas such as in the household and at school. "Abusive supervision has been investigated as an antecedent to negative subordinate workplace outcome". "Workplace violence has combination of situational and personal factors". The study that was conducted looked at the link between abusive supervision and different workplace events.
- See: Academic abuse
Ad hominem abuse
Main article: Ad hominem abuse
Ad hominem abuse (also called personal abuse or personal attacks) usually involves insulting or belittling one's opponent to invalidate his or her argument, but can also involve pointing out factual but ostensible character flaws or actions which are irrelevant to the opponent's argument.
- See: Anti-social behaviour, Juvenile delinquency, Parental abuse by adolescents, Parental abuse of adolescents
Adult abuse refers to the abuse of vulnerable adults.
Main article: Alcohol abuse
Alcohol abuse, as described in the DSM-IV, is a psychiatric diagnosis describing the recurring use of alcoholic beverages despite its negative consequences. Alcohol abuse is sometimes referred to by the less specific term alcoholism. However, many definitions of alcoholism exist, and only some are compatible with alcohol abuse. There are two types of alcoholics: those who have anti social and pleasure-seeking tendencies, and those who are anxiety-ridden- people who are able to go without drinking for long periods of time but are unable to control themselves once they start.Binge drinking is another form of alcohol abuse. Frequent binge drinking or getting severely drunk more than twice is classed as alcohol misuse. According to research done through international surveys, the heaviest drinkers happen to be the United Kingdom's adolescent generation.
Main article: Cruelty to animals
See also: Category:Cruelty to animals
Animal abuse is the infliction of suffering or harm upon animals, other than humans, for purposes other than self-defense. More narrowly, it can be harm for specific gain, such as killing animals for fur. Diverging viewpoints are held by jurisdictions throughout the world.
Main article: Anti-social behavior
See also: Incivility
Anti-social behavior is often seen as public behavior that lacks judgement and consideration for others and may damage them or their property. It may be intentional, as with vandalism or graffiti, or the result of negligence. Persistent anti-social behavior may be a manifestation of an antisocial personality disorder. The counterpart of anti-social behavior is pro-social behavior, namely any behavior intended to help or benefit another person, group or society.
Main article: Bullying
See also: Template:Bullying, Category:Bullying, Bullying in academia, Bullying in information technology, Bullying in medicine, Bullying in the military, Bullying in nursing, Bullying in teaching, Gay bullying, School bullying, Sexual bullying, and Workplace bullying
Bullying is repeated acts over time that involves a real or perceived imbalance of power with the more powerful individual or group attacking those who are less powerful. Bullying may consist of three basic types of abuse – verbal, physical and emotional. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion such as intimidation. Bullying can be defined in many different ways. Although the UK currently has no legal definition of bullying, some US states have laws against it. Bullying is usually done to coerce others by fear or threat.
Main article: Character assassination
Character assassination is an attempt to tarnish a person's reputation. It may involve exaggeration or manipulation of facts to present an untrue picture of the targeted person. It is a form of defamation and can be a form of an ad hominem (to the person) argument.
Main article: Child abuse
See also: Category:Child abuse and Child neglect
Child abuse is the physical or psychological/emotional mistreatment of children. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child. Most child abuse occurs in a child's home, with a smaller amount occurring in the organisations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological/emotional abuse, and sexual abuse.
Parental abuse of children
- See: Abuse#Child abuse
Child sexual abuse
Main article: Child sexual abuse
See also: Category:Child sexual abuse, Child sexual abuse laws in the United States, False allegation of child sexual abuse, Laws regarding child sexual abuse, Penn State child sex abuse scandal, and Relationship between child pornography and child sexual abuse
Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. Different forms of this include: asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), some types of indecent exposure of genitalia to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact against a child, viewing or engaging in physical contact with the child's genitals for sexual purposes, or using a child to produce child pornography.
Child-on-child sexual abuse
Main article: Child-on-child sexual abuse
Child-on-child sexual abuse refers to a form of child sexual abuse in which a prepubescent child is sexually abused by one or more other children or adolescent youths, and in which no adult is directly involved. This includes sexual activity between children that occurs without consent, without equality, or as a result of coercion; particularly when physical force, threats, trickery, or emotional manipulation are used to elicit co-operation.
- See: Abuse#Spiritual abuse
Civil rights abuse
Main article: Civil rights
Main article: Clandestine abuse
Clandestine abuse is sexual, psychological, or physical abuse "that is kept secret for a purpose, concealed, or underhanded."
- See: Catholic sex abuse cases
Cyber abuse or cyber bullying
Main article: Cyberbullying
See also: Computer crime, Cyber-aggression in the workplace, Cyberstalking, Cyberterrorism, Email bomb, Flaming (Internet), Harassment by computer, and Troll (Internet)
Cyberbullying "involves the use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group, that is intended to harm others." -Bill Belsey
Dating abuse or dating violence
Main article: Dating abuse
See also: Date rape
Dating abuse is a pattern of abusive behaviour exhibited by one or both partners in a dating relationship. The behaviour may include, but is not limited to; physical abuse; psychological abuse; and sexual abuse.
Main article: Defamation
See also: Libel and Slander
Defamation is the communication of a statement that makes a claim, expressly stated or implied to be factual, that may give an individual, business, product, group, government or nation a negative image. It is usually—but not always,[note 1] a requirement that this claim be false and that the publication be communicated to someone other than the person defamed (termed the claimant).
- See: Abuse#Prison abuse or prisoner abuse
Main article: Disability abuse
It has been noted that disabled people are disproportionately affected by disability abuse and bullying, and such activity has been cited as a hate crime. The bullying is not limited to those who are visibly disabled – such as wheelchair-users or individuals with physical deformities (e.g., cleft lip) – but also those with learning disabilities such as autism and developmental coordination disorder. In the latter case, this is linked to a poor ability in physical education, and this behaviour can be encouraged by an ignorant physical education teacher. Abuse of the disabled is not limited to schools; there are many known cases in which the disabled have been abused by staff of a "care institution", such as the case revealed in a BBCPanorama programme on a Castlebeck care home (Winterbourne View) near Bristol, leading to its closure and suspension or firing of staff members.
Main articles: Discrimination, Category:Discrimination, Template:Discrimination, Template:Discrimination sidebar, Prejudice, and Religious discrimination
Discriminatory abuse involves picking on or treating someone unfairly because something about them is different; for example concerning:
Discriminatory laws such as redlining have existed in many countries. In some countries, controversial attempts such as racial quotas have been used to redress negative effects of discrimination.
Other acts of discrimination include political libel, defamation of groups and stereotypes based on exaggerations.
- See: Abuse#Medical abuse, Bullying in medicine, Patient abuse
Domestic abuse or domestic violence
Main article: Domestic violence
See also: Category:Domestic violence, Christianity and domestic violence, Common couple violence, Domestic violence and pregnancy, Effects of domestic violence on children, Epidemiology of domestic violence, and Islam and domestic violence
Domestic abuse can be broadly defined as any form of abusive behaviours by one or both partners in an intimate relationship, such as marriage, cohabitation, family, dating, or even friends. It is important to remember that abuse is always intentional, and can not happen by accident. Domestic violence has many forms, including:
- physical aggression (hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining, throwing objects), or threats thereof
- sexual abuse
- emotional abuse
- financial abuse (withholding money or controlling all money, including that of other family members)
- social abuse (restricting access to friends and/or family, insulting or threatening friends and/or family), controlling or domineering
- passive/covert abuse (e.g., neglect)
- economic deprivation
Depending on local statues, the domestic violence may or may not constitute a crime, also depending on the severity and duration of specific acts, and other variables. Alcohol consumption and mental illness have frequently been associated with abuse.
- See: Abuse#Substance abuse
Main article: Economic abuse
Economic abuse is a form of abuse when one intimate partner has control over the other partner's access to economic resources, which diminishes the victim's capacity to support him/herself and forces him/her to depend on the perpetrator financially.
Main article: Elder abuse
Elder abuse is a type of harm to older adults involving abuse by trusted individuals in a manner that "causes harm or distress to an older person." This definition has been adopted by the World Health Organization from a definition put forward by Action on Elder Abuse in the UK.
- See: Psychological abuse
- See: Workplace abuse or workplace bullying
Main article: False accusations
False accusations (or false allegations) can be in any of the following contexts:
See also: Economic abuse
Examples of financial (or material) abuse include: illegal or unauthorised use of a person's property, money, pension book or other valuables (including changing the person's will to name the abuser as heir); and often fraudulently obtaining power of attorney, followed by deprivation of money or other property, by eviction from their own home; or by taking advantage of their age or disability.
- Baumhoefner, Arlen (2006). Financial Abuse of the Deaf And Hard of Hearing Exposed.
- Bechthold, Henry L (2003). Blowing the Whistle on the Christian Church in America: The Political Hypocrisy, Double Standards and Financial Abuse Exposed.
- Carnot, Edward J (2003). Is Your Parent in Good Hands?: Protecting Your Aging Parent from Financial Abuse and Neglect (Capital Cares).
- Roubicek, Joe (2008). Financial Abuse of the Elderly; A Detective's Case Files Of Exploitation Crimes.
Main article: Flag desecration
Flag abuse (or flag desecration) is a term applied to various acts that intentionally destroy, damage or mutilate a flag in public, most often a national flag. Often, such action is intended to make a political point against a country or its policies. Some countries have laws forbidding methods of destruction (such as burning in public) or forbidding particular uses (such as for commercial purposes); such laws may distinguish between desecration of the country's own national flag and flags of other countries. Countries may have laws protecting the right to burn a flag as free speech.
Gaming the system
Main article: Gaming the system
Gaming the system (also called bending the rules, gaming the rules, playing the system, abusing the system, milking the system, or working the system) can be defined as using the rules and procedures meant to protect a system to instead manipulate the system for a desired outcome.
Main article: Gaslighting
Gaslighting is manipulation through persistent denial, misdirection, contradiction, and lying in an attempt to destabilize and delegitimize a target. Its intent is to sow seeds of doubt in the targets, hoping to make them question their own memory, perception, and sanity. Instances may range from the denial by an abuser that previous abusive incidents ever occurred up to the staging of bizarre events by the abuser with the intention of disorienting the victim. The term owes its origin to Gas Light, a 1938 play and 1944 film, and has been used in clinical and research literature.
Gay abuse or gay bashing
Main article: Gay bashing
Gay bashing and gay bullying are verbal or physical abuse against a person perceived by the aggressor to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual, including people who are actually heterosexual, or of non-specific or unknown sexual orientation.
Group psychological abuse
Main article: Group psychological abuse
Group psychological abuse refers to groups where methods of psychological abuse are frequently or systematically used on their members. Such abuse would be practices that treat the members as objects one is free to manipulate instead of respecting their autonomy, human rights, identity and dignity. In a group they may also play mind games with another person that can make the victim seem like they are accepted, but in actuality are backstabbing the person when his/her back is turned. When the victim requests assistance from the abusing group it is not given.
Main article: Harassment
See also: Harassment by computer, Electronic harassment, Mobile harassment, Power harassment, and Sexual harassment
Harassment covers a wide range of offensive behaviour. It is commonly understood as behaviour intended to disturb or upset. In the legal sense, it is behaviour which is found threatening or disturbing.
Power harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a political nature, often occurring in the environment of a workplace.
Sexual harassment refers to persistent and unwanted sexual advances, typically in the workplace, where the consequences of refusing sexual requests are potentially very disadvantageous to the victim.
Main article: Hate crimes
See also: Category:Hate crime, Disability hate crime, Hate mail, and Hate speech
Hate crimes occur when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her perceived membership in a certain social group; usually defined by racial group, religion, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender, gender identity, or political affiliation.
"Hate crime" generally refers to criminal acts which are seen to have been motivated by hatred of one or more of the listed conditions. Incidents may involve physical assault, damage to property, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, or offensive graffiti or inflammatory letters (hate mail).
Main article: Hazing
Hazing is considered any activity involving harassment, abuse, or humiliation as a way of initiating a person into a group.
Hazing is seen in many different types of groups; including within gangs, clubs, sports teams, military units, and workplaces. In the United States and Canada, hazing is often associated with Greek-letter organisations (fraternities and sororities). Hazing is often prohibited by law and may be either physical (possibly violent) or mental (possibly degrading) practices. It may also include nudity or sexually oriented activities.
Human rights abuse
Main article: Human rights
See also: Category:Human rights abuses
Human rights are "basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled." Examples of rights and freedoms which have come to be commonly thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and liberty, freedom of expression, and equality before the law; and economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to participate in culture, the right to be treated with respect and dignity, the right to food, the right to work, and—in certain countries—the right to education.
Main article: Humiliation
Humiliation is the abasement of pride, which creates mortification or leads to a state of being humbled or reduced to lowliness or submission. It can be brought about through bullying, intimidation, physical or mental mistreatment or trickery, or by embarrassment if a person is revealed to have committed a socially or legally unacceptable act.
Main article: Incivility
See also: Workplace incivility
Incivility is a general term for social behaviour lacking in civility or good manners, ranging from rudeness or lack of respect towards elders; vandalism and hooliganism; or public drunkenness and threatening behaviour.
Main article: Institutional abuse
See also: Foster care § State abuses
Institutional abuse can typically occur in a care home, nursing home, acute hospital or in-patient setting and can be any of the following:
- Barter, Christine (1998). Investigating Institutional Abuse of Children (Policy, Practice, Research). National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC). ISBN 978-0902498846
- Beker, Jerome (1982). Institutional Abuse of Children and Youth (Child & Youth Services). Routledge.
- Manthorpe J, Penhale B, Stanley N (1999). Institutional Abuse: Perspectives Across the Life Course. Routledge.
- Westcott, Helen L (1991). Institutional Abuse of Children – From Research to Policy: A Review (Policy, Practice, Research S.) National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC).
Main article: Insult
See also: Ad hominem, Incivility, and Rudeness
An insult is an expression, statement or behaviour considered to be degrading and offensive.
Main article: Intimidation
See also: Witness intimidation
Intimidation is intentional behaviour "which would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" fear of injury or harm. It is not necessary to prove that the behaviour was so violent as to cause terror or that the victim was actually frightened. "The calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to attain goals political, religious, or ideological in nature...through intimidation, coercion, or instilling fear" can be defined as terrorism.
Main article: Legal abuse
See also: Category:Abuse of the legal system
Legal abuse refers to abuses associated with both civil and criminal legal action. Abuse can originate from nearly any part of the legal system, including frivolous and vexatiouslitigants, abuses by law enforcement, incompetent, careless or corrupt attorneys and misconduct from the judiciary itself.
Legal abuse is responsible not only for injustice, but also harm to physical, psychological and societal health.
- See: Gay abuse or gay bashing
- See: Negligence
Main article: Market abuse
See also: Anti-competitive practices and Insider trading
Market abuse may arise in circumstances where financial investors have been unreasonably disadvantaged, directly or indirectly, by others who:
- have used information which is not publicly available (insider dealing)
- have distorted the price-setting mechanism of financial instruments
- have disseminated false or misleading information.
- See: Financial abuse
See also: Abuse § Patient abuse, Patient abuse, Aggression in healthcare, Bullying in medicine, Bullying in nursing, Medical malpractice, and Never events
- See: Psychological abuse
Main articles: Bullying in the military, Military use of children, Military sexual trauma, War crime, and War rape
War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war", including "murder, the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied territory to slave labor camps", "the murder or ill-treatment of prisoners of war", the killing of hostages, "the wanton destruction of cities, towns and villages, and any devastation not justified by military, or civilian necessity".
War rape is rape committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict or war. During war and armed conflict rape is frequently used as means of psychological warfare to humiliate the enemy and undermine their morale.
Military sexual trauma is sexual assault and rape experienced by military personnel. It is often accompanied by posttraumatic stress disorder.
Mind abuse or mind control
Main article: Mind control
See also: Category:Mind control and Mind games
Mind abuse or mind control refers to a process in which a group or individual "systematically uses unethically manipulative methods to persuade others to conform to the wishes of the manipulator(s), often to the detriment of the person being manipulated". The term has been applied to any tactic, psychological or otherwise, which can be seen as subverting an individual's sense of control over their own thinking, behaviour, emotions or decision making.
Main article: Misconduct
See also: Duty to report misconduct, Judicial misconduct, Official misconduct, Police misconduct, Police misconduct in the United States, Prosecutorial misconduct, Scientific misconduct, and Sexual misconduct
Misconduct means a wrongful, improper, or unlawful conduct motivated by premeditated or intentional purpose or by obstinate indifference to the consequences of one's acts. Three categories of misconduct are official misconduct, professional misconduct and sexual misconduct.
Main article: Mobbing
Mobbing means bullying of an individual by a group in any context. Identified as emotional abuse in the workplace (such as "ganging up" on someone by co-workers, subordinates or superiors) to force someone out of the workplace through rumour, innuendo, intimidation, humiliation, discrediting, and isolation, it is also referred to as malicious, nonsexual, nonracial, general harassment.
Mobbing can take place in any group environment such as a workplace, neighbourhood or family.
Main article: Narcissistic abuse
Narcissistic abuse is a term that emerged in the late 20th century, and became more prominent in the 2000s decade. It originally referred specifically to abuse by narcissistic parents of their children, but more recently has come to mean any abuse by a narcissist (egotistical person or someone with arrogant pride).
Main article: Neglect
See also: Child neglect and Self-neglect
Neglect is a passive form of abuse in which a caregiver responsible for providing care for a victim (a child, a physically or mentally disabled adult, an animal, a plant, or an inanimate object) fails to provide adequate care for the victim's needs, to the detriment of the victim. It is typically seen as a form of laziness or apathy on the form of the caregiver, rather than ignorance due to inability; accordingly, neglect of a child by and adult with mental disorders or who is overworked is not considered abuse, although this may constitute child neglect nonetheless.
Examples of neglect include failing to provide sufficient supervision, nourishment, medical care or other needs for which the victim is helpless to provide for themselves.
Main article: Negligence
See also: Legal malpractice, Malpractice, Medical malpractice, Negligence in employment, and Professional negligence in English Law
Negligence is conduct that is culpable (to blame) because it falls short of what a reasonable person would do to protect another individual from foreseeable risks of harm.
Nurse abuse or nursing abuse
See also: Abuse § Medical abuse, and Bullying in nursing
- See: Abuse#Cyber abuse or cyber bullying
Parental abuse by children
Main article: Parental abuse by children
Abuse of parents by their children is a common but under-reported and under-researched subject. Parents are quite often subject to levels of childhood aggression, typically in the form of verbal or physical abuse, in excess of normal childhood aggressive outbursts. Parents feel a sense of shame and humiliation to have that problem, so they rarely seek help; nor is much help available today.
Main article: Passive–aggressive behavior
See also: Mind games, Neglect, Obstructionism, Procrastination, Silent treatment, and Social undermining
Passive–aggressive behaviour is a form of covert abuse. It is passive, sometimes obstructionist resistance to following through with expectations in interpersonal or occupational situations. It can manifest itself as learned helplessness, procrastination, stubbornness, resentment, sullenness, or deliberate and repeated failures in accomplishing tasks for which one is (often explicitly) expected to do.
Main article: Patient abuse
See also: Category:Health care professionals convicted of murdering patients, Experimentation on prisoners, Iatrogenesis, Medical harm, and Medical malpractice
Patient abuse or neglect is any action or failure to act which causes unreasonable suffering, misery or harm to the patient. It includes physically striking or sexually assaulting a patient. It also includes withholding of necessary food, physical care, and medical attention. It applies to various contexts such as hospitals, nursing homes, clinics and home visits.
"Peer abuse" is an expression popularised by author Elizabeth Bennett in 2006 to reinforce the idea that it is as valid to identify bullying as a form of abuse just as one would identify any other form of abuse. The term conveys similar connotations to the term peer victimisation.
Main article: Persecution
See also: Category:Persecution and Category:Religious persecution
Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another group. The most common forms are religious persecution, ethnic persecution, and political persecution; though there is naturally some overlap between these terms.
Personal abuse or personal attacks
- See: Abuse#Ad hominem abuse
Main article: Physical abuse