Essay On Jute In Bangladesh Female

Bangladesh vs. India

Introduction

BangladeshIndia
BackgroundThe huge delta region formed at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra River systems - now referred to as Bangladesh - was a loosely incorporated outpost of various empires centered on the Gangetic plain for much of the first millennium A.D. Muslim conversions and settlement in the region began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans established trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the eastern half, became part of British India. Partition in 1947 resulted in an eastern wing of Pakistan in the Muslim-majority area, which became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won the independence war for Bangladesh in 1971.
The post-independence AL government faced daunting challenges and in 1975 was overthrown by the military, triggering a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) in 1978. That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections occurred in 1991. The BNP and AL alternated in power between 1991 and 2013, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime that suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. That government returned the country to fully democratic rule in December 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. In January 2014, the incumbent AL won the national election by an overwhelming majority after the BNP boycotted, extending HASINA's term as prime minister. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has reduced the poverty rate from over half of the population to less than a third, achieved Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health, and made great progress in food security since independence. The economy has grown at an annual average of about 6% over the last two decades and the country reached World Bank lower-middle income status in 2015.
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century.
By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.

Geography

BangladeshIndia
LocationSouthern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates24 00 N, 90 00 E
20 00 N, 77 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 148,460 sq km
land: 130,170 sq km
water: 18,290 sq km
total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Pennsylvania and New Jersey combined; slightly smaller than Iowa
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 4,413 km
border countries (2): Burma 271 km, India 4,142 km
total: 13,888 km
border countries (6): Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km
Coastline580 km
7,000 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to the outer limits of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatetropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrainmostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 85 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
mean elevation: 160 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,586 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, arable land, timber, coal
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 70.1%
arable land 59%; permanent crops 6.5%; permanent pasture 4.6%
forest: 11.1%
other: 18.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 60.5%
arable land 52.8%; permanent crops 4.2%; permanent pasture 3.5%
forest: 23.1%
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land53,000 sq km (2012)
667,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdroughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
volcanism: Barren Island (354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
Environment - current issuesmany people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notemost of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal

Demographics

BangladeshIndia
Population157,826,578 (July 2017 est.)
1,281,935,911 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.76% (male 22,283,780/female 21,521,977)
15-24 years: 19.36% (male 15,309,543/female 15,241,971)
25-54 years: 39.73% (male 30,094,014/female 32,614,286)
55-64 years: 6.93% (male 5,405,900/female 5,527,330)
65 years and over: 6.23% (male 4,666,033/female 5,161,744) (2017 est.)
0-14 years: 27.34% (male 186,087,665/female 164,398,204)
15-24 years: 17.9% (male 121,879,786/female 107,583,437)
25-54 years: 41.08% (male 271,744,709/female 254,834,569)
55-64 years: 7.45% (male 47,846,122/female 47,632,532)
65 years and over: 6.24% (male 37,837,801/female 42,091,086) (2017 est.)
Median agetotal: 26.7 years
male: 26 years
female: 27.3 years (2017 est.)
total: 27.9 years
male: 27.2 years
female: 28.6 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate1.04% (2017 est.)
1.17% (2017 est.)
Birth rate18.8 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
19 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-3.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 31.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 29.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
total: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.4 years
male: 71.3 years
female: 75.6 years (2017 est.)
total population: 68.8 years
male: 67.6 years
female: 70.1 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate2.17 children born/woman (2017 est.)
2.43 children born/woman (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate<.01% (2016 est.)
0.3% (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladeshi
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
Ethnic groupsBengali at least 98%, ethnic groups 1.1%
note: Bangladesh's government recognizes 27 ethnic groups under the 2010 Cultural Institution for Small Anthropological Groups Act; other sources estimate there are about 75 ethnic groups; critics of the 2011 census claim that it underestimates the size of Bangladesh's ethnic population (2011 est.)
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS12,000 (2016 est.)
2.1 million (2016 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 89.1%, Hindu 10%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist, Christian) (2013 est.)
Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,000 (2016 est.)
62,000 (2016 est.)
LanguagesBangla 98.8% (official, also known as Bengali), other 1.2% (2011 est.)
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 72.8%
male: 75.6%
female: 69.9% (2016 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.2%
male: 81.3%
female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2014)
Education expenditures2.2% of GDP (2015)
3.8% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 35.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.19% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 33.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 86.5% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 86.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.5% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 13.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 94.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 57.7% of population
rural: 62.1% of population
total: 60.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 42.3% of population
rural: 37.9% of population
total: 39.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 62.6% of population
rural: 28.5% of population
total: 39.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 37.4% of population
rural: 71.5% of population
total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationDHAKA (capital) 17.598 million; Chittagong 4.539 million; Khulna 1.022 million; Rajshahi 844,000 (2015)
NEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate176 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight32.6% (2014)
35.7% (2015)
Health expenditures2.8% of GDP (2014)
4.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.39 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
0.73 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density0.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate3.6% (2016)
3.9% (2016)
Contraceptive prevalence rate62.3% (2014)
53.5% (2015/16)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.6
youth dependency ratio: 44.9
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 13 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 52.2
youth dependency ratio: 43.6
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6
potential support ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)

Government

BangladeshIndia
Country name"conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
local short form: Bangladesh
former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
etymology: the name - a compound of the Bengali words ""Bangla"" (Bengal) and ""desh"" (country) - means ""Country of Bengal""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat
etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name ""Bharat"" may derive from the ""Bharatas"" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Dhaka
geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions8 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet
29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi
Independence16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan)
15 August 1947 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 26 March (1971); Victory Day, 16 December (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of the Awami League's declaration of an independent Bangladesh, and 16 December (Victory Day) memorializes the military victory over Pakistan and the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1935, 1956, 1962 (pre-independence); latest enacted 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended March 1982, restored November 1986
amendments: proposed by the House of the Nation; approval requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the House membership, assented to by the president of the republic, and approved in a referendum by a majority of voters; amended many times, last in 2014 (2017)
history: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950
amendments: proposed by either the Council of States or the House of the People; passage requires majority participation of the total membership in each house and at least two-thirds majority of voting members of each house, followed by assent of the president of India; proposed amendments to the constitutional amendment procedures also must be ratified by at least one-half of the India state legislatures before presidential assent; amended many times, last in 2016 (2017)
Legal systemmixed legal system of mostly English common law and Islamic law
common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Abdul HAMID (since 24 April 2013); note - Abdul HAMID served as acting president following the death of Zillur RAHMAN in March 2013; HAMID was subsequently indirectly elected by the National Parliament and sworn in 24 April 2013
head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 6 January 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 April 2013 (next to be held by 2018); the president appoints as prime minister the majority party leader in the National Parliament
election results: President Abdul HAMID (AL) elected by the National Parliament unopposed; Sheikh HASINA reappointed prime minister as leader of the majority AL party
chief of state: President Ram Nath KOVIND (since 25 July 2017); Vice President M. Venkaiah NAIDU (since 11 August 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 5 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by parliamentary members of the majority party
election results: Ram Nath KOVIND elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Ram Nath KOVIND (BJP) 65.7% Meira KUMAR (INC) 34.3%; Mohammad Hamid ANSARI reelected vice president (2012 election); electoral college vote - Mohammad Hamid ANSARI 490, Jaswant SINGH 238
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad (350 seats; 300 members in single-seat territorial constituencies directly elected by simple majority popular vote; 50 members - reserved for women only - indirectly elected by the elected members by proportional representation vote using the single transferable vote method; all members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 5 January 2014 (next to be held by January 2019); note - the 5 January 2014 poll was marred by widespread violence, boycotts, general strikes, and low voter turnout
election results: percent of vote by party - AL 79.1%, JP (Ershad) 11.3%, WP 2.1%, JSD 1.8%, other 1%, independent 4.8%; seats by party - AL 234, JP 34, WP 6, JSD 5, other 5, independent 15; 1 seat repolled
description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote, and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms) and the House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of the People - last held April-May 2014 in 10 phases; (next must be held by May 2019)
election results: House of the People - percent of vote by party - BJP 31.0%, INC 19.3%, AITC 3.8%, SP 3.4%, AIADMK 3.3%, CPI(M) 3.3%, TDP 2.6%, YSRC 2.5%, AAP 2.1%, SAD 1.8%, BJD 1.7%, SS 1.7%, NCP 1.6%, RJD 1.3%, TRS 1.3%, LJP 0.4%, other 15.9%, independent 3.0%; seats by party - BJP 282, INC 44, AIADMK 37, AITC 34, BJD 20, SS 18, TDP 16, TRS 11, CPI(M) 9, YSRC 9, LJP 6, NCP 6, SP 5, AAP 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, other 33, independent 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Bangladesh (organized into the Appellate Division with 7 justices and the High Court Division with 99 justices)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice and justices appointed by the president; justices serve until retirement at age 67
subordinate courts: subordinate courts: civil courts include: Assistant Judge's Court; Joint District Judge's Court; Additional District Judge's Court; District Judge's Court; criminal courts include: Court of Sessions; Court of Metropolitan Sessions; Metropolitan Magistrate Courts; Magistrate Court; special courts/tribunals
"highest court(s): Supreme Court (the chief justice and 25 associate justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court
note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the ""National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform"" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases
"
Political parties and leadersAwami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]
Bangladesh Nationalist Front or BNF [Abdul Kalam AZADI]
Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]
Bangladesh Tariqat Federation or BTF [Syed Nozibul Bashar MAIZBHANDARI]
Jamaat-i-Islami Bangladesh or JIB (Mujibur RAHMAN)
Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]
Jatiya Party or JP (Manju faction) [Anwar Hossain MANJU]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
National Socialist Party or JSD [KHALEQUZZAMAN]
Workers Party or WP [Rashed Khan MENON]
Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [Edappadi PALANISWAMY, Occhaathevar PANNEERSELVAM]
All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH]
Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT]
Indian National Congress or INC [Rahul GANDHI]
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
Samajwadi Party or SP [Akhilesh YADAV]
Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]
Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
Telegana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
YSR Congress or YSRC [Jagan Mohan REDDY]
note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties
Political pressure groups and leadersAin o Salish Kendro (Centre for Law and Mediation) or ASK (legal aid and civil rights)
Bangladesh Center for Worker Solidarity or BCWS
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee or BRAC [Sir Fasel Hasan ABED]
Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry or FBCCI [Md. Shafiul Islam (Mohiuddin)]
Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs or MoWCA [Meher Afroze CHUMKI] (advocacy group to end gender-based violence)
Odikhar [Dr. C.R. ABRAR (human rights group)
other: associations of madrassa teachers; business associations, including those intended to promote international trade; development and advocacy NGOs associated with the Grameen Bank; environmentalists; Islamist groups; labor rights advocacy groups; NGOs focused on poverty alleviation, and international trade; religious leaders; tribal groups and advocacy organizations; union leaders
All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)
Bajrang Dal (militant religious organization)
Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI] (religious organization)
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh or RSS [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization)
Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Pravin TOGADIA] (militant religious organization)
other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
International organization participationADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Mohammad ZIAUDDIN (since 18 September 2014)
chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
FAX: [1] (202) 244-2771
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Navtej Singh SARNA (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone: [1](202) 939-7000
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Marcia BERNICAT (since 4 February 2015)
embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
telephone: [880] (2) 5566-2000
FAX: [880] (2) 5566-2915
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth JUSTER (since 23 November 2017)
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Flag descriptiongreen field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh
three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation
note: similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band
National anthem"name: ""Amar Shonar Bangla"" (My Golden Bengal)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem
"
"name: ""Jana-Gana-Mana"" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)Bengal tiger, water lily; national colors: green, red
the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bangladesh
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

BangladeshIndia
Economy - overviewBangladesh's economy has grown roughly 6% per year since 1996 despite prolonged periods of political instability, poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the services sector, almost half of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product.

Garment exports, the backbone of Bangladesh's industrial sector, accounted for more than 80% of total exports and surpassed $25 billion in 2016. The sector continues to grow, despite a series of high-profile factory accidents that have killed more than 1,000 workers and crippling strikes, including a nationwide transportation blockade orchestrated by the political opposition during the first several months of 2015. Steady export growth in the garment sector combined with remittances from overseas Bangladeshis - which totaled about $15 billion and 8% of GDP in 2015 - are key contributors to Bangladesh's sustained economic growth and rising foreign exchange reserves.
India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the workforce is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers. Nevertheless, per capita income remains below the world average.

India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged nearly 7% per year from 1997 to 2017. India's economic growth slowed in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee through 2016.

Growth rebounded in 2014 through 2016, exceeding 7% each year, but slowed in 2017. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Since the election, the government has passed an important goods and services tax bill and raised foreign direct investment caps in some sectors, but most economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt in 2015 and 2016, resulting in low credit growth and restrained economic growth.

The outlook for India's long-term growth is moderately positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. However, long-term challenges remain significant, including: India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$686.5 billion (2017 est.)
$640.7 billion (2016 est.)
$597.8 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$9.447 trillion (2017 est.)
$8.852 trillion (2016 est.)
$8.265 trillion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - real growth rate7.1% (2017 est.)
7.2% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
6.7% (2017 est.)
7.1% (2016 est.)
8% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$4,200 (2017 est.)
$4,000 (2016 est.)
$3,700 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
$7,200 (2017 est.)
$6,800 (2016 est.)
$6,400 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 14.2%
industry: 29.2%
services: 56.5% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 16.8%
industry: 28.9%
services: 46.6% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line31.5% (2010 est.)
21.9% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 29.8% (2011)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)5.7% (2017 est.)
5.7% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2017 est.)
4.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force73.41 million
note: extensive migration of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia (2017 est.)
521.9 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 47%
industry: 13%
services: 40% (2010 est.)
agriculture: 47%
industry: 22%
services: 31% (FY 2014 est.)
Unemployment rate4.1% (2017 est.)
4.1% (2016 est.)
note: about 40% of the population is underemployed; many persons counted as employed work only a few hours a week and at low wages
8.8% (2017 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index32.1 (2010)
33.6 (1996)
35.2 (2011)
37.8 (1997)
Budgetrevenues: $27.08 billion
expenditures: $39.31 billion (2017 est.)
revenues: $248.7 billion
expenditures: $330.3 billion (2017 est.)
Industriesjute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate8.2% (2017 est.)
7.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Exports$35.91 billion (2017 est.)
$34.14 billion (2016 est.)
$299.3 billion (2017 est.)
$268.6 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgarments, knitwear, agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather
petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
Exports - partnersUS 13.1%, Germany 12.7%, UK 8.6%, France 5.1%, Spain 5% (2016)
US 16%, UAE 11.7%, Hong Kong 5.1% (2016)
Imports$42.38 billion (2017 est.)
$40.37 billion (2016 est.)
$426.8 billion (2017 est.)
$376.1 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiescotton, machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
Imports - partnersChina 24.3%, India 13.4%, Singapore 5.1%, Japan 4.5% (2016)
China 17%, US 5.8%, UAE 5.4%, Saudi Arabia 5.2%, Switzerland 4.2% (2016)
Debt - external$45.07 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$41.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$483.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$456.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange ratestaka (BDT) per US dollar -
80.69 (2017 est.)
78.468 (2016 est.)
78.468 (2015 est.)
77.947 (2014 est.)
77.614 (2013 est.)
Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
65.17 (2017 est.)
67.195 (2016 est.)
67.195 (2015 est.)
64.152 (2014 est.)
61.03 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
1 April - 31 March
Public debt28.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
26.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
50.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
50.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$33.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$32.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$407.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$359.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.751 billion (2017 est.)
$1.381 billion (2016 est.)
-$33.68 billion (2017 est.)
-$15.23 billion (2016 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$250 billion (2016 est.)
$2.439 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$14.62 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$13.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$367.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$318.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$389.5 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$228.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$156.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$144.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$50.98 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$41.73 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$23.55 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate5% (30 October 2016)
5% (30 October 2015)
6.25% (31 December 2016)
7.75% (31 December 2014)
note: this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate
Commercial bank prime lending rate10.2% (31 December 2017 est.)
10.41% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.6% (31 December 2017 est.)
9.67% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$144.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$133.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.795 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.622 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$28.37 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$25.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$429.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$294.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$132.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$121.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.063 trillion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.773 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues10.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
10.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
-3.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 9.4%
male: 9.5%
female: 9.4% (2013 est.)
total: 10.7%
male: 10.4%
female: 11.6% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 67.5%
government consumption: 6.4%
investment in fixed capital: 30.3%
investment in inventories: 1%
exports of goods and services: 15.5%
imports of goods and services: -20.7% (2017 est.)
household consumption: 58.7%
government consumption: 11.6%
investment in fixed capital: 27.5%
investment in inventories: 4%
exports of goods and services: 18.4%
imports of goods and services: -20.2% (2017 est.)
Gross national saving29.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
30.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
28.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
29.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Energy

BangladeshIndia
Electricity - production55.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.289 trillion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption48.98 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.048 trillion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
5.15 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2016 est.)
5.244 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production4,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
734,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports26,160 bbl/day (2014 est.)
3.789 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports313 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - proved reserves28 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
4.621 billion bbl (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - proved reserves205.4 billion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
1.227 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
Natural gas - production26.86 billion cu m (2015 est.)
31.24 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption39.88 billion cu m (2015 est.)
102.3 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
270 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
18.67 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity11.7 million kW (2015 est.)
308.8 million kW (30 November 2016 )
Electricity - from fossil fuels96.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
71.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
14.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
1.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
14.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production25,720 bbl/day (2014 est.)
4.793 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption107,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
4.142 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports1,802 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1.371 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports85,990 bbl/day (2014 est.)
481,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy66 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.887 billion Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 60,300,000
electrification - total population: 60%
electrification - urban areas: 90%
electrification - rural areas: 49% (2013)
population without electricity: 237,400,000
electrification - total population: 79%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 70% (2013)

Telecommunications

BangladeshIndia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 772,369
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
total subscriptions: 24.404 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2016 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 126,391,269
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (July 2016 est.)
total: 1,127.809 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: inadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities
domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 80 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2016)
general assessment: supported by recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base exceeded 1 billion in 2015, an overall teledensity of roughly 80%, and subscribership is currently growing at roughly 5 million per month; urban teledensity now exceeds 100%, and rural teledensity has reached 50%
domestic: mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)
international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), SEA-ME-WE-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2015)
Internet country code.bd
.in
Internet userstotal: 28,499,324
percent of population: 18.2% (July 2016 est.)
total: 374,328,160
percent of population: 29.5% (July 2016 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned Bangladesh Television (BTV) operates 1 terrestrial TV station, 3 radio networks, and about 10 local stations; 8 private satellite TV stations and 3 private radio stations also broadcasting; foreign satellite TV stations are gaining audience share in the large cities; several international radio broadcasters are available (2009)
Doordarshan, India's public TV network, operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly (2015)

Transportation

BangladeshIndia
Railwaystotal: 2,460 km
broad gauge: 659 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,801 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 68,525 km
broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified)
narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge; 622 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 21,269 km
paved: 2,021 km
unpaved: 19,248 km (2010)
total: 4,699,024 km
note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads (2015)
Waterways8,370 km (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season) (2011)
14,500 km (5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels) (2012)
Pipelinesgas 2,950 km (2013)
condensate/gas 9 km; gas 13,581 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,054 km; oil 8,943 km; oil/gas/water 20 km; refined products 11,069 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Chittagong
river port(s): Mongla Port (Sela River)
container port(s): Chittagong (1,392,104) (2011)
major seaport(s): Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam
container port(s) (TEUs): Chennai (1,571,000), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,492,000) (2015)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Dabhol, Dahej, Hazira
Merchant marinetotal: 306
by type: bulk carrier 28, container ship 4, general cargo 75, oil tanker 110, other 89 (2017)
total: 1,674
by type: bulk carrier 74, container ship 20, general cargo 571, oil tanker 126, other 883 (2017)
Airports18 (2013)
346 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2017)
total: 253
over 3,047 m: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 59
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
914 to 1,523 m: 82
under 914 m: 14 (2017)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 93
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 45 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)
45 (2013)
National air transport systemnumber of registered air carriers: 6
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 30
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,906,799
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 182,692,553 mt-km (2015)
number of registered air carriers: 20

This article is about the vegetable fiber. For other uses, see Jute (disambiguation).

Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus, which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae, and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis.[1] "Jute" is the name of the plant or fiber that is used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth.

Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers and it is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibers. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. It falls into the bast fiber category (fiber collected from bast, the phloem of the plant, sometimes called the "skin") along with kenaf, industrial hemp, flax (linen), ramie, etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute. The fibers are off-white to brown, and 1–4 metres (3–13 feet) long. Jute is also called the golden fiber for its color and high cash value.

Cultivation[edit]

Main article: Jute cultivation

Jute needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water. The suitable climate for growing jute (warm and wet) is offered by the monsoon climate, during the monsoon season. Temperatures from 20˚C to 40˚C and relative humidity of 70%–80% are favourable for successful cultivation. Jute requires 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly, and more during the sowing time. Soft water is necessary for the jute production.

White jute (Corchorus capsularis)[edit]

Historical documents (including Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in 1590) state that the poor villagers of India used to wear clothes made of jute. Simple handlooms and hand spinning wheels were used by the weavers, who used to spin cotton yarns as well. History also suggests that Indians, especially Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses. It is highly functional in carrying grains or other agricultural products.

Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius)[edit]

Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) is a variety thought to be native to India, which is also the world's top producer. It is grown for both fiber and culinary purposes. The leaves are used as an ingredient in a mucilaginouspotherb called "molokhiya" (ملوخية, of uncertain etymology). It is very popular in some Arabian countries such as Egypt, Jordan, and Syria as a soup-based dish, sometimes with meat over rice or lentils. The Book of Job (chapter 30, verse 4), in the King James translation of the Hebrew Bible מלוח MaLOo-aĤ "salty",[2] mentions this vegetable potherb as "mallow". Giving rise to the term Jew's Mallow[3] It is high in protein, vitamin C, beta-carotene, calcium, and iron.

On the other hand, it is used mainly for its fiber in Bangladesh, in other countries in Southeast Asia, and the South Pacific. Tossa jute fiber is softer, silkier, and stronger than white jute. This variety astonishingly shows good sustainability in the climate of the Ganges Delta. Along with white jute, tossa jute has also been cultivated in the soil of Bengal where it is known as paat from the start of the 19th century. Coremantel, Bangladesh is the largest global producer of the tossa jute variety.

History[edit]

For centuries, jute has been an integral part of the culture of East Bengal and some parts of West Bengal, precisely in the southwest of Bangladesh. Since the seventeenth century the British started trading in jute. During the reign of the British Empire jute was also used in the military. British jute barons grew rich processing jute and selling manufactured products made from jute. Dundee Jute Barons and the British East India Company set up many jute mills in Bengal and by 1895 jute industries in Bengal overtook the Scottish jute trade. Many Scots emigrated to Bengal to set up jute factories. More than a billion jute sandbags were exported from Bengal to the trenches during World War I and also exported to the United States southern region to bag cotton. It was used in the fishing, construction, art and the arms industry. Initially, due to its texture, it could only be processed by hand until it was discovered in Dundee that by treating it with whale oil, it could be treated by machine.[4] The industry boomed throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries ("jute weaver" was a recognised trade occupation in the 1900 UK census), but this trade had largely ceased by about 1970 due to the emergence of synthetic fibers. In the 21st century, jute again rose to be an important crop for export around the world in contrast to synthetic fiber, mainly from Bangladesh

Production[edit]

Main article: Jute trade

The jute fiber comes from the stem and ribbon (outer skin) of the jute plant. The fibers are first extracted by retting. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. After the retting process, stripping begins; women and children usually do this job. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibers from within the jute stem.[5]

Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides, in contrast to cotton's heavy requirements. Production is concentrated mostly in Bangladesh, as well as India's states of Assam, Bihar, and West Bengal.[6] India is the world's largest producer of jute,[7] but imported approximately 162,000 tonnes[8] of raw fiber and 175,000 tonnes[9] of jute products in 2011. India, Pakistan, and China import significant quantities of jute fiber and products from Bangladesh, as do the United Kingdom, Japan, United States, France, Spain, Ivory Coast, Germany and Brazil.

CountryProduction (Tonnes)
 India1,968,000
 Bangladesh1,349,000
 People's Republic of China29,628
 Uzbekistan20,000
   Nepal14,890
 South Sudan3,300
 Zimbabwe2,519
 Egypt2,508
 Brazil1,172
 Vietnam970
 World3,393,248

Genome[edit]

Main article: Jute genome

At the beginning of the 21st century, in 2002 Bangladesh commissioned a consortium of researchers from University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI) and private software firm DataSoft Systems Bangladesh Ltd., in collaboration with Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Science Malaysia and University of Hawaii, to research different fibers and hybrid fibers of jute. The draft genome of jute (Corchorus olitorius) was completed.[11]

Uses[edit]

Making twine, rope, and matting are among its uses.

In combination with sugar, the possibility of using jute to build aeroplane panels has been considered. [12]

Jute is in great demand due to its cheapness, softness, length, lustre and uniformity of its fiber. It is called the 'brown paper bag' as it is also used to store rice, wheat, grains, etc. It is also called the 'golden fiber' due to its versatile nature.

Fibers[edit]

Jute matting is used to prevent flood erosion while natural vegetation becomes established. For this purpose, a natural and biodegradable fiber is essential.

Jute is the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton due to its versatility.[13] Jute is used chiefly to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and to make sacks and coarse cloth. The fibers are also woven into curtains, chair coverings, carpets, area rugs, hessian cloth, and backing for linoleum.

While jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these uses,[citation needed] some uses take advantage of jute's biodegradable nature, where synthetics would be unsuitable. Examples of such uses include containers for planting young trees, which can be planted directly with the container without disturbing the roots, and land restoration where jute cloth prevents erosion occurring while natural vegetation becomes established.

The fibers are used alone or blended with other types of fiber to make twine and rope. Jute butts, the coarse ends of the plants, are used to make inexpensive cloth. Conversely, very fine threads of jute can be separated out and made into imitation silk. As jute fibers are also being used to make pulp and paper, and with increasing concern over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to make most paper, the importance of jute for this purpose may increase. Jute has a long history of use in the sackings, carpets, wrapping fabrics (cotton bale), and construction fabric manufacturing industry.

Jute was used in traditional textile machinery as fibers having cellulose (vegetable fiber content) and lignin (wood fiber content). But, the major breakthrough came when the automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries started to use jute and its allied fibers with their non-woven and composite technology to manufacture nonwovens, technical textiles, and composites. Therefore, jute has changed its textile fiber outlook and steadily heading towards its newer identity, i.e., wood fiber. As a textile fiber, jute has reached its peak from where there is no hope of progress, but as a wood fiber jute has many promising features.[14]

Jute is used in the manufacture of a number of fabrics such as Hessian cloth, sacking, scrim, carpet backing cloth (CBC), and canvas. Hessian, lighter than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall-coverings, upholstery, and home furnishings. Sacking, a fabric made of heavy jute fibers, has its use in the name. CBC made of jute comes in two types. Primary CBC provides a tufting surface, while secondary CBC is bonded onto the primary backing for an overlay. Jute packaging is used as an eco-friendly substitute.

Diversified jute products are becoming more and more valuable to the consumer today. Among these are espadrilles, soft sweaters and cardigans, floor coverings, home textiles, high performance technical textiles, Geotextiles, composites, and more.

Jute floor coverings consist of woven and tufted and piled carpets. Jute Mats and mattings with 5 / 6 mts width and of continuous length are easily being woven in Southern parts of India, in solid and fancy shades, and in different weaves like, Boucle, Panama, Herringbone, etc. Jute Mats & Rugs are made both through Powerloom & Handloom, in large volume from Kerala, India. The traditional Satranji mat is becoming very popular in home décor. Jute non-wovens and composites can be used for underlay, linoleum substrate, and more.

Jute has many advantages as a home textile, either replacing cotton or blending with it. It is a strong, durable, color and light-fast fiber. Its UV protection, sound and heat insulation, low thermal conduction and anti-static properties make it a wise choice in home décor. Also, fabrics made of jute fibers are carbon-dioxide neutral and naturally decomposable. These properties are also why jute can be used in high performance technical textiles.[5]

Moreover, jute can be grown in 4–6 months with a huge amount of cellulose being produced from the jute hurd (inner woody core or parenchyma of the jute stem) that can meet most of the wood needs of the world. Jute is the major crop among others that is able to protect deforestation by industrialisation.[clarification needed]

Thus, jute is the most environment-friendly fiber starting from the seed to expired fiber, as the expired fibers can be recycled more than once.

Jute is also used to make ghillie suits, which are used as camouflage and resemble grasses or brush.

Another diversified jute product is Geotextiles, which made this agricultural commodity more popular in the agricultural sector. It is a lightly woven fabric made from natural fibers that is used for soil erosion control, seed protection, weed control, and many other agricultural and landscaping uses. The Geotextiles can be used more than a year and the bio-degradable jute Geotextile left to rot on the ground keeps the ground cool and is able to make the land more fertile.

Culinary uses[edit]

In Nigeria, leaves of Corchorus olitorius are prepared in sticky soup called ewedu together with ingredients such as sweet potato, dried small fish or shrimp.[15] The leaves are rubbed until foamy or sticky before adding to the soup. Amongst the Yoruba of Nigeria, the leaves are called Ewedu, and in the Hausa-speaking northern Nigeria, the leaves are called turgunuwa or lallo. The jute leaves are cut into shreds and added to the soup which would normally contain other ingredients such as meat and/or fish, pepper, onions, and other spices. Likewise, the Lugbara of Northwestern Uganda eat the leaves as soup, locally called pala bi. Jute is also a totem for Ayivu, one of the Lugbara clans.

In the Philippines, especially in Ilocano-dominated areas, this vegetable, locally known as saluyot, can be mixed with either bitter gourd, bamboo shoots, loofah, or sometimes all of them. These have a slimy and slippery texture.

Similarly, the leaves are used in Cypriot cuisine as an ingredient for stews. It is known locally as molohiya. It is typically cooked with lamb or chicken.

Other[edit]

Diversified byproducts from jute can be used in cosmetics, medicine, paints, and other products.

Features[edit]

  • Jute fiber is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly.
  • Jute has low pesticide and fertilizer needs.
  • It is a natural fiber with golden and silky shine and hence called The Golden Fiber.
  • It is the cheapest vegetable fiber procured from the bast or skin of the plant's stem.
  • It is the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton, in terms of usage, global consumption, production, and availability.
  • It has high tensile strength, low extensibility, and ensures better breathability of fabrics. Therefore, jute is very suitable in agricultural commodity bulk packaging.
  • It helps to make top quality industrial yarn, fabric, net, and sacks. It is one of the most versatile natural fibers that has been used in raw materials for packaging, textiles, non-textile, construction, and agricultural sectors. Bulking of yarn results in a reduced breaking tenacity and an increased breaking extensibility when blended as a ternary blend.
  • The best source of jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain in the Ganges Delta, most of which is occupied by Bangladesh.
  • Advantages of jute include good insulating and antistatic properties, as well as having low thermal conductivity and a moderate moisture regain. Other advantages of jute include acoustic insulating properties and manufacture with no skin irritations.
  • Jute has the ability to be blended with other fibers, both synthetic and natural, and accepts cellulosic dye classes such as natural, basic, vat, sulfur, reactive, and pigment dyes. As the demand for natural comfort fibers increases, the demand for jute and other natural fibers that can be blended with cotton will increase. To meet this demand, some manufactures in the natural fiber industry plan to modernize processing with the Rieter's Elitex system. The resulting jute/cotton yarns will produce fabrics with a reduced cost of wet processing treatments. Jute can also be blended with wool. By treating jute with caustic soda, crimp, softness, pliability, and appearance is improved, aiding in its ability to be spun with wool. Liquid ammonia has a similar effect on jute, as well as the added characteristic of improving flame resistance when treated with flameproofing agents.
  • Some noted disadvantages include poor drapability and crease resistance, brittleness, fiber shedding, and yellowing in sunlight. However, preparation of fabrics with castor oillubricants result in less yellowing and less fabric weight loss, as well as increased dyeing brilliance. Jute has a decreased strength when wet, and also becomes subject to microbial attack in humid climates. Jute can be processed with an enzyme in order to reduce some of its brittleness and stiffness. Once treated with an enzyme, jute shows an affinity to readily accept natural dyes, which can be made from marigold flower extract. In one attempt to dye jute fabric with this extract, bleached fabric was mordanted with ferrous sulphate, increasing the fabric's dye uptake value. Jute also responds well to reactive dyeing. This process is used for bright and fast coloured value-added diversified products made from jute.

Cultural significance[edit]

National symbols[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Plants for a Future, retrieved 21 May 2015 
  2. ^The New Bantam-Megiddo Hebrew & English Dictionary, Sivan and Levenston, Bantam books, NY, 1875
  3. ^Chiffolo, Anthony F; Rayner W. Hesse (30 August 2006). Cooking With the Bible: Biblical Food, Feasts, And Lore. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 237. ISBN 9780313334108. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  4. ^"BBC Two - Brian Cox's Jute Journey". BBC. 2010-02-24. Retrieved 2016-09-20. 
  5. ^ abJute. (IJSG). Retrieved 13 June 2007.
  6. ^"Office of the Jute Commissioner — Ministry of Textiles". www.jutecomm.gov.in. 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 
  7. ^"Statistics — World production of Jute Fibres from 2004/2005 to 2010/2011". International Jute Study Group (IJSG). 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 
  8. ^"Statistics — World Import of raw Jute, Kenaf and Allied Fibres". International Jute Study Group (IJSG). 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 
  9. ^"Statistics — World Imports of Products of Jute, Kenaf and Allied Fibres". International Jute Study Group (IJSG). 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 
  10. ^"FAOSTAT – Crops"(Query page requires interactive entry in four sections: "Countries"–Select All; "Elements"–Production Quantity; "Items"–Jute; "Years"–2014). Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division. 2017-02-13. Retrieved 2017-02-17. 
  11. ^"The Jute Genome Project Homepage". Retrieved 2010-06-17. 
  12. ^"SUGAR AND JUTE AEROPLANE PANELS". 
  13. ^"WHAT IS JUTE AND JUCO?". 
  14. ^The Golden Fiber Trade Centre Limited. (GFTCL) - Articles & Information on Jute, Kenaf, & Roselle Hemp.
  15. ^AVRDC. Recipes - African Sticky Soup (Ewedu). Retrieved 27 June 2013.

Further reading[edit]

  • Basu, G., A. K. Sinha, and S. N. Chattopadhyay. "Properties of Jute Based Ternary Blended Bulked Yarns". Man-Made Textiles in India. Vol. 48, no. 9 (Sep. 2005): 350–353. (AN 18605324)
  • Chattopadhyay, S. N., N. C. Pan, and A. Day. "A Novel Process of Dyeing of Jute Fabric Using Reactive Dye". Textile Industry of India. Vol. 42, no. 9 (Sep. 2004): 15–22. (AN 17093709)
  • Doraiswamy, I., A. Basu, and K. P. Chellamani. "Development of Fine Quality Jute Fibers". Colourage. Nov. 6–8, 1998, 2p. (AN TDH0624047199903296)
  • Kozlowski, R., and S. Manys. "Green Fibers". The Textile Institute. Textile Industry: Winning Strategies for the New Millennium—Papers Presented at the World Conference. Feb. 10–13, 1999: 29 (13p). (AN TDH0646343200106392)
  • Madhu, T. "Bio-Composites—An Overview". Textile Magazine. Vol. 43, no. 8 (Jun. 2002): 49 (2 pp). (AN TDH0656367200206816)
  • Maulik, S. R. "Chemical Modification of Jute". Asian Textile Journal. Vol. 10, no. 7 (Jul. 2001): 99 (8 pp). (AN TDH0648424200108473)
  • Moses, J. Jeyakodi, and M. Ramasamy. "Quality Improvement on Jute and Jute Cotton Materials Using Enzyme Treatment and Natural Dyeing". Man-Made Textiles in India. Vol. 47, no. 7 (Jul. 2004): 252–255. (AN 14075527)
  • Pan, N. C., S. N. Chattopadhyay, and A. Day. "Dyeing of Jute Fabric with Natural Dye Extracted from Marigold Flower". Asian Textile Journal. Vol. 13, no. 7 (Jul. 2004): 80–82. (AN 15081016)
  • Pan, N. C., A. Day, and K. K. Mahalanabis. "Properties of Jute". Indian Textile Journal. Vol. 110, no. 5 (Feb. 2000): 16. (AN TDH0635236200004885)
  • Roy, T. K. G., S. K. Chatterjee, and B. D. Gupta. "Comparative Studies on Bleaching and Dyeing of Jute after Processing with Mineral Oil in Water Emulsion vis-a-vis Self-Emulsifiable Castor Oil". Colourage. Vol. 49, no. 8 (Aug. 2002): 27 (5 pp). (AN TDH0657901200208350)
  • Shenai, V. A. "Enzyme Treatment". Indian Textile Journal. Vol. 114, no. 2 (Nov. 2003): 112–113. (AN 13153355)
  • Srinivasan, J., A. Venkatachalam, and P. Radhakrishnan. "Small-Scale Jute Spinning: An Analysis". Textile Magazine. Vol. 40, no. 4 (Feb. 1999): 29. (ANTDH0624005199903254)
  • Tomlinson, Jim. Carlo Morelli and Valerie Wright. The Decline of Jute: Managing Industrial Decline (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2011) 219 pp. ISBN 978-1-84893-124-4. focus on Dundee, Scotland
  • Vijayakumar, K. A., and P. R. Raajendraa. "A New Method to Determine the Proportion of Jute in a Jute/Cotton Blend". Asian Textile Journal, Vol. 14, no. 5 (May 2005): 70-72. (AN 18137355)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jute.
Look up jute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Jute fiber being dried alongside a road after retting
Jute plants (Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis)
Jute stems being retted in water to separate the fibers
Jute fiber is extracted from retted stem of jute plants
Jute stalks are being dehydrated under the sun, later they will be used as fuel.
Picture of cutting lower part of the long jute fiber. The lower part is hard fiber, which is called jute cuttings in Bangladesh and India (commonly called jute butts or jute tops elsewhere). Jute cuttings are lower in quality, but have commercial value for the paper, carded yarn, and other fiber processing industries. Jute fibers are kept in bundles in the background in a warehouse in Bangladesh.

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