If you believe that content available by means of the Website (as defined in our Terms of Service) infringes one or more of your copyrights, please notify us by providing a written notice (“Infringement Notice”) containing the information described below to the designated agent listed below. If Varsity Tutors takes action in response to an Infringement Notice, it will make a good faith attempt to contact the party that made such content available by means of the most recent email address, if any, provided by such party to Varsity Tutors.
Your Infringement Notice may be forwarded to the party that made the content available or to third parties such as ChillingEffects.org.
Please be advised that you will be liable for damages (including costs and attorneys’ fees) if you materially misrepresent that a product or activity is infringing your copyrights. Thus, if you are not sure content located on or linked-to by the Website infringes your copyright, you should consider first contacting an attorney.
Please follow these steps to file a notice:
You must include the following:
A physical or electronic signature of the copyright owner or a person authorized to act on their behalf; An identification of the copyright claimed to have been infringed; A description of the nature and exact location of the content that you claim to infringe your copyright, in \ sufficient detail to permit Varsity Tutors to find and positively identify that content; for example we require a link to the specific question (not just the name of the question) that contains the content and a description of which specific portion of the question – an image, a link, the text, etc – your complaint refers to; Your name, address, telephone number and email address; and A statement by you: (a) that you believe in good faith that the use of the content that you claim to infringe your copyright is not authorized by law, or by the copyright owner or such owner’s agent; (b) that all of the information contained in your Infringement Notice is accurate, and (c) under penalty of perjury, that you are either the copyright owner or a person authorized to act on their behalf.
Send your complaint to our designated agent at:
Charles Cohn Varsity Tutors LLC
101 S. Hanley Rd, Suite 300
St. Louis, MO 63105
Or fill out the form below:
2. What are pioneer species? What is the role of pioneer species?
Pioneer species are the first species that colonize places where there were previously no other living organisms, such as algae that colonize bare rocks. In general, pioneer species are autotrophs or maintain harmonious ecological interaction with autotrophic organisms(such as autotrophic bacteria, herbaceous plants, lichens).
A pioneer community is formed of species able to survive in hostile environments. The presence of these species modifies the microenvironment, generating changes in the abiotic and biotic factors of the ecosystem in formation. Therefore, they pave the way for other species to establish themselves at the location through the creation of new potential ecological niches.
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
3. What is the difference between primary ecological succession and secondary ecological succession?
Primary ecological succession is the changing sequence of communities starting with the first biological occupation of a place where there were no living organisms previously. For example, the colonization and the following succession of communities on a bare rock is a case of primary ecological succession.
Secondary ecological succession is the changing sequence of communities starting with the substitution of a community by a new one in a given place. An example of this is the ecological succession of the invasion of plants and animals on an abandoned crop or land.
4. What is the climax stage of an ecological succession?
The climax stage is the stage of the ecological succession in which the community of an ecosystem becomes stable and does not undergo significant changes. In the climax community, practically all ecological niches are explored and greater biodiversity is possible. In this stage the biomass, the photosynthesis rate and cellular respiration reach their maximum levels and therefore net primary production (NPP = organic material made by the producers – organic material consumed in the cellular respiration of the producers) approaches zero. During the climax, the amount of oxygen released by photosynthesis is practically equal to the oxygen consumed by respiration. (This is one more reason why it is wrong to say that the Amazon Rainforest, an ecosystem at the climax stage, is “the lung” of the earth. Other reasons are: because lungs are not producers of oxygen; and because the algae and cyanobacteria of phytoplankton are the main producers of the molecular oxygen on the planet.)
The Dynamics of the Ecological Succession
5. How do biodiversity, the total number of living organisms and biomass vary during ecological succession?
Biodiversity, the number of living organisms and the biomass of an ecosystem tend to increase as the succession progresses and stabilize when the climax stage is reached.
During the initial stage of succession, the use of carbon dioxide and the fixation of carbon into the biomass are high, since the total number of living organism in the ecosystem is increasing. During the climax stage, the use of carbon dioxide by photosynthesis equals its production by cellular respiration and the fixation of carbon into the biomass approaches zero.
Tweets by @BiologyAnswers
Select any question to share it on FB or Twitter
Just select (or double-click) a question to share. Challenge your Facebook and Twitter friends.
Now that you have finished studying Ecological Succession, these are your options:
- Review this subject, read all Q&As again.
- Choose another Q&A sequence to study by using the subject menu.
Give access to Biology Q&As to someone you like. Click here.