- Leadership and management must go hand in hand.
- Workers need their managers not just to assign tasks but to define purpose.
- Managers must organize workers, not just to maximize efficiency, but to nurture skills, develop talent and inspire results.
Adapted from “The Wall Street Journal Guide to Management” by Alan Murray, published by Harper Business.
Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. But they are necessarily linked, and complementary. Any effort to separate the two is likely to cause more problems than it solves.
Still, much ink has been spent delineating the differences. The manager’s job is to plan, organize and coordinate. The leader’s job is to inspire and motivate. In his 1989 book “On Becoming a Leader,” Warren Bennis composed a list of the differences:
– The manager administers; the leader innovates.
– The manager is a copy; the leader is an original.
– The manager maintains; the leader develops.
– The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people.
– The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust.
– The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.
– The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why.
– The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader’s eye is on the horizon.
– The manager imitates; the leader originates.
– The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it.
– The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person.
– The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing.
Perhaps there was a time when the calling of the manager and that of the leader could be separated. A foreman in an industrial-era factory probably didn’t have to give much thought to what he was producing or to the people who were producing it. His or her job was to follow orders, organize the work, assign the right people to the necessary tasks, coordinate the results, and ensure the job got done as ordered. The focus was on efficiency.
But in the new economy, where value comes increasingly from the knowledge of people, and where workers are no longer undifferentiated cogs in an industrial machine, management and leadership are not easily separated. People look to their managers, not just to assign them a task, but to define for them a purpose. And managers must organize workers, not just to maximize efficiency, but to nurture skills, develop talent and inspire results.
The late management guru Peter Drucker was one of the first to recognize this truth, as he was to recognize so many other management truths. He identified the emergence of the “knowledge worker,” and the profound differences that would cause in the way business was organized.
With the rise of the knowledge worker, “one does not ‘manage’ people,” Mr. Drucker wrote. “The task is to lead people. And the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of every individual.”
Is there any difference between leadership and management? Or leadership and management are the same? On a close look it can be seen that many managers are not leaders, though successful in their field. Leaders lead from the front and managers believe in directing controlling and planning and improving the efficiency of the organization. A manager makes the subordinates to work, a leader work with the people. Management philosophers and thinkers have been interested in identifying the difference between a manager and a leader.. Some leaders show management skills and some mangers show leadership skills. (Mccrimmon M, 2007) It is now well established that there is difference between a manager and a leader
Leader leads from front
A leader leads from the front. His language will be like come let us do the work. On the other hand a manager believes in planning and coordinating the work. He uses management techniques to manage others. Followers voluntarily follow the leader. This may not be the case with managers. Subordinates is been asked to obey the instruction of the manager by virtue of his position. The subordinates may be obeying the manager on his leadership skills or may be just as it is part of their duty. It is also common the subordinates dislike the manager and still follows his action to save his or her job. A leader has his interest common to the followers. When the common interest is being identified, people voluntarily follow him. Rather than asking the people to work, a leader prefers to call them for work and they just follow the instructions of a leader. This important quality makes a big difference between the style of functioning of a manger and a leader.
Difference in working style
There is a big difference in the working style of a manager. A leader attracts the people with the charisma he is having. He used to have an upper hand in technological knowledge than the workers. Leadership may not have any relevance with the functioning of the organization. On the other hand the management is different in its way of functioning. A manager keeps the organizational priority at his best. He has to do certain tasks as per the guidelines set by the organization. He then plans to achieve this by his people. Here the manager uses the modern management tools. He is interested in directing, planning and organizing. To make this effective he also uses modern management tools. A leader innovates and the manager administers (Bennis W, Doyal S, 2006). Leadership is setting up vision and Direction and management is implementation of this (Doyal S, 2006).
A leader set his vision and the followers follow his vision almost voluntarily. He seldom needs force to attract towards him in execution of his direction and vision. On the other hand the manager executes the vision of the organization. On his journey towards this he will also be using leadership skills to effectively manage his people. A manger with leadership skills can effectively manage the organization. There should be a force attracting the followers or a subordinate to the person directs them. In case of leadership it is often the quality of the leader or his charisma that attracts the people to him. On the other hand the manager and the leader should be the two sides of the coin. Latest management trends show an inclination towards improving the leadership qualities of a manager. It is accepted that a manager should improve the output of the organization but it should be on the cost of the people working in the organization.
The directing function of the manager is making people ready to perform certain task or assigning certain task to the people. This functional area of the manger has more to do with leadership. Once a task is to be performed, the concerned manager has to detail people or direct people to accomplish the task. This is mostly done in different ways by a manager and a leader. However both leader and a manager use the function of directing. Followers voluntarily work as per the direction where as manager needs to have something else for motivating the people to work. This may be different to different organization and also as per the management style it differs. Organizations have special structure and policies to motivate the people to work and managers are part of it.
In the field of emergency medical services the directing function of the manager has a lot to do with routine jobs. Things are to be done at high pace and many times immediate decisions are to be taken. The chances of going these decisions wrong are high. In this scenario subordinates should be motivated and encouraged to take decisions at time of emergency. Also the manager should be able to provide directions without any delay. His competence as a leader is very important. A leader comes forward to take the responsibility of the actions of his followers. The followers also recognize this fact and there are more people willing to work under a leader under emergencies. This is what actually needed in an emergency service. At the same time the leader should be conversant with the procedures adopted in an emergency. A manager is a technical person and he is likely to be thorough in procedures and policies. Union of managerial qualities and leadership skills will be a good formula for emergency medical services.
Leaders are emotionally more intelligent than ordinary managers. A manager wants to be successful should have high emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand and control one’s emotions and to understand the emotions of others. People having high emotional intelligence tend to be leaders. According to Terry, “a leader shows the way by his example. He is not a pusher; he pulls rather than pushes (Terry R G, 1988). A typical manager does not follow this style. He plans and direct people to get the work done. There is set of duties and responsibilities for each person in the organization. A manager ensures this is been done. He uses his control function to see things are going as per the schedule. A manger often uses his control powers. In contrast a leader expects his subordinates to perform the way it is desired. For example if a staff is coming late to his duty. The typical manager may think of taking corrective action, where as a leader may be thinking to find out the reasons behind the late coming of the staff and may be willing to support that person. Similar actions make the follower emotionally attached to the leader and they keep the individual interest only next to the common goals
In emergency medical service, emotional intelligence is a highly required quality of the person heading the operation. A leader who is empathetic and understands the emotions of others can do a lot in getting people involved in the service. A leader should avoid knee jerk reactions. It is already said emotional intelligence makes the difference in actions of a manager and a leader. A manager who is low in emotional intelligence may follow only the rule book and this kind of attitude may lead to poor quality service especially in emergency medical service. It is good to be knowledgeable but at the same time the managers should understand the need of being empathetic to the subordinates and the customers.
Leadership in Emergency Medical Service
The EMS (Emergency Medical Service) is becoming more and more complex day by day. The system is working with a lot of supervisors, ordinary staff and managers and a wide net work is being formed. Due to all these it has become very difficult for people associated with these services to survive without leadership skills. A leadership includes motivating and directing people to work. Emergency service requires quick action and this demands intrinsic motivation rather than anything. Only a true leader can make the intrinsic motivation in people following him. A leader motivates people to work for a common goal. In this service too, the person heads the department has to motivate the people to work for the common goal. A true leader can do it more effectively than a manager.
A leader should be a team player. Emergency service is always a team play. Mere management principles will not make any difference to the organization. A lot of uncertainty is present with the Emergency services. A manager should be capable of handling these services. People under him should be willing to work for extra hours if required. If extra service is required it should be given on volunteer basis. Here the scope of leadership is more visible. A leader can motivate his team members to provide their best.
Team members perform will perform to their full potential when the team leader motivates them to do so. The team leader should be empathetic to his team mates. He should make the people well aware of the team goal and the members should feel that the goal is common to all. Then only their full potential can be utilized. A leader should also provide a platform for the members to learn and grow. This will make the team members to become more professional. This will also increase the efficiency of the team to perform tasks.
Functions of management
Functions of management are Directing, Organizing, Planning, controlling and staffing. Professional managers are trained to perform these functions. Some people are on the view that Directing is the most important function of a manager. Many managers believe decision making is an important function of the manager. In the Emergency Medical Service Industry manager should be good at decision making. He will have to make decisions in seconds. A manger is trained to have these qualities. In management schools Case studies are used to impart the skills of decision making.
A leader has the quality of decision making and directing, a leader’s method of directing and decision making differ from that of a manager. Leaders decision are derived from that of his team members where as the managers decisions are learned decision and the decision the manger thinks to be good for the company. In respect to other function like controlling and planning a manger uses modern management tools. An ordinary leader may not know these tools for planning and controlling. Hence in these function a manger may have an upper hand in delivering the duties. But if the manager has leadership skills then he can really outperform an ordinary manager. All leading management institutes have special curriculum to sharpen the leadership skills of the managers. It is also said it is important to become a leader then become a manager by learning management tools. Management is ‘managing men’ and a leader is expected to do this function well. Leadership involves in common interest and goal. By this common interest and goal a leader can motivate people to attain common goals. Managers seek scientific methods to perform their task. Leaders are not interested in going for such tools and management techniques. They are good motivators.
Born Leaders and Managers
Many people believe leaders are born to be leaders but not they believe there are born managers. People believe management qualities are trained. This may not be true regarding leadership qualities. For example, in accident sights some people emerge as leaders and guide others on what to do. These leaders are not trained to become managers or leaders. It is also observed that such people repeat the leadership role in similar occasion. This shows they are born leaders. Many view that leadership skills can be trained on individuals. But training on leadership skill is more difficult than training on management skills. It is also observed that function of direction is the most difficult part for any managers. Unless people have certain inborn skills it is difficult to direct other people.
In emergency medical service, to make the service more useful and effective, leaders are required than mere mangers. Emergency situation are unique and the robotic act will not help. A kind of intuition is the requirement of medical services. It is not that made up managers will be a failure. But born leaders can perform the task of emergency dealing perfectly
Leaders should have technical skills and personal skills to be more effective. If the leader does not have adequate knowledge people may not obey him in the long run. The followers should believe that the leader is more knowledgeable and technically competent than them. This gives the followers confidence to work with the leader and they will feel an assurance that the leader will look after them in case of any trouble. Leaders are more approachable than managers. They like to meet people and discuss their problems. Leaders suggest measures to resolve the worries of the people when people approach them. These characteristics are not applicable to managers. Managers are mainly concerned in increasing the profitability of the organization. In contrast leaders are more concerned about their followers.
Managers and Leaders
Successful managers are efficient leaders. Bill Gate is a successful leader as well as a good manager. There are other examples too. Most successful managers are not MBA holders rather they are good leaders. On a close view it can be understood that it is important to become a leader first than becoming a manager. Story of successful managers in all fields underlines this factor.
There are other differences in the styles of managers and leaders. A manager makes his decision and then sells his decision to his followers. Manger compares alternatives before making decisions. He asks his subordinates to question if they have any doubt. In case of a leader his decisions are more acceptable to the mass and that is the reason they follow the leader.
There is a difference between leadership and management. Managers are more concerned about planning, controlling, staffing and organizing. Leaders are more concerned about directing and organizing people. They act more as a representative of the followers. People follow leaders voluntarily than by virtue of their position. Leaders should have high emotional intelligence. In Emergency Medical Service leadership qualities are more sought after than mere management skills. Managers with good leadership skills can produce best result. Successful business people are good leaders as well as good manager. To be successful in the long run a manager should have leadership skills.
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