Swiss Views On Euthanasia Essay

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2. Watson R. Luxembourg is to allow euthanasia. BMJ. 2009;338:b1248. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b1248.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

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7. van der Heide A, Onwuteaka–Philipsen BD, Rurup ML, et al. End-of-life practices in the Netherlands under the Euthanasia Act. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1957–65. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa071143.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

8. Van den Block L, Deschepper R, Bilsen J, Bossuyt N, Van Casteren V, Deliens L. Euthanasia and other end of life decisions and care provided in final three months of life: nationwide retrospective study in Belgium. BMJ. 2009;339:b2772. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b2772.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

9. Van den Block L, Deschepper R, Bilsen J, Bossuyt N, Van Casteren V, Deliens L. Euthanasia and other end-of-life decisions: a mortality follow-back study in Belgium. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:79. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-79.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

10. Chambaere K, Bilsen J, Cohen J, Onwuteaka–Philipsen BD, Mortier F, Deliens L. Physician-assisted deaths under the euthanasia law in Belgium: a population-based survey. CMAJ. 2010;182:895–901. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.091876.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

11. Prager LO. Details emerge on Oregon’s first assisted suicides. American Medical News. Sep 7, 1998.

12. Rurup M, Buiting HM, Pasman RHW, van der Maas PJ, van der Heide A, Onwuteaka–Philipsen BD. The reporting rate of euthanasia and physicians-assisted suicide. A study of the trends. Med Care. 2008;46:1198–202. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e31817d69e8.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

13. Smets T, Bilsen J, Cohen J, Rurup ML, Mortier F, Deliens L. Reporting of euthanasia in medical practice in Flanders, Belgium: cross sectional analysis of reported and unreported cases. BMJ. 2010;341:c5174. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c5174.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

14. Onwuteaka–Philipsen B, van der Heide A, Muller MT, et al. Dutch experience of monitoring euthanasia. BMJ. 2005;331:691–3. doi: 10.1136/bmj.331.7518.691.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

15. Inghelbrecht E, Bilsen J, Mortier F, Deliens L. The role of nurses in physician-assisted deaths in Belgium. CMAJ. 2010;182:905–10. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.091881.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

16. Hendin H. Seduced by death: doctors, patients and the Dutch cure. Issues Law Med. 1994;10:123–68.[PubMed]

17. Hendin H, Foley K. Physician-assisted suicide in Oregon: a medical perspective. Mich Law Rev. 2008;106:1613–40.[PubMed]

18. Van Wesemael Y, Cohen J, Onwuteaka–Philipsen BD, Bilsen J, Deliens L. Establishing specialized health services for professional consultation in euthanasia: experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium. BMC Health Serv Res. 2009;9:220. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-220.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

19. Gamaster N, Van den Eynden B. The relationship between palliative care and legalized euthanasia in Belgium. J Palliat Med. 2009;12:589–91. doi: 10.1089/jpm.2009.0065.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

20. Oregon Department of Human Services (dhs) Death with Dignity Act. Portland, OR: dhs; 2007. [Available online at:; cited February 17, 2011]

21. Chochinov HM, Wilson KG, Enns M, et al. Desire for death in the terminally ill. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152:1185–91.[PubMed]

22. Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL, Emanuel LL. Attitudes and desires related to euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide among terminally ill patients and their caregivers. JAMA. 2000;284:2460–8. doi: 10.1001/jama.284.19.2460.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

23. Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Pessin H, et al. Depression, hopelessness, and desire for hastened death in terminally ill patients with cancer. JAMA. 2000;284:2907–11. doi: 10.1001/jama.284.22.2907.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

24. Ganzini L, Goy ER, Dobscha SK. Why Oregon patients request assisted death: family members’ views. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23:154–7. doi: 10.1007/s11606-007-0476-x.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

25. Ganzini L, Goy ER, Dobscha SK. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients requesting physicians’ aid in dying: cross sectional survey. BMJ. 2008;337:a1682. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1682.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

26. Smith SW. Evidence for the practical slippery slope in the debate on physician assisted suicide and euthanasia. Med Law Review. 2005;13:17–44. doi: 10.1093/medlaw/fwi002.[Cross Ref]

27. Keown J. Euthanasia, Ethics, and Public Policy: An Argument Against Legalisation. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press; 2002.

28. Sheldon T. Dutch GP found guilty of murder faces no penalty. BMJ. 2001;322:509.[PMC free article][PubMed]

29. Sheldon T. Dutch court acquits suicide counsellor of breaking the law. BMJ. 2007;334:228–9. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39108.711794.DB.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

30. Bilsen J, Cohen J, Chambaere K, et al. Medical end-of-life practices under the euthanasia law in Belgium. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1119–21. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc0904292.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

31. Smets T, Bilsen J, Cohen J, Rurup ML, Deliens L. Legal euthanasia in Belgium: characteristics of all reported euthanasia cases. Med Care. 2010;48:187–92. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e3181bd4dde.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

32. Sheldon T. Dutch euthanasia law should apply to patients “suffering through living,” report says. BMJ. 2005;330:61. doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7482.61.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

33. McAlpine CH. Elder abuse and neglect. Age Ageing. 2008;37:132–3. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afn008.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

34. Verhagen AA, Sol JJ, Brouwer OF, Sauer PJ. Deliberate termination of life in newborns in the Netherlands; review of all 22 reported cases between 1997 and 2004 [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005;149:183–8.[PubMed]

35. Sheldon T. Dutch law leads to confusion over when to use life ending treatment in suffering newborns. BMJ. 2009;339:b5474. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b5474.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

36. Burgermeister J. Doctor reignites euthanasia row in Belgium after mercy killing. BMJ. 2006;332:382. doi: 10.1136/bmj.332.7538.382-c.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

37. Cohen–Almagor R. Belgian euthanasia law: a critical analysis. J Med Ethics. 2009;35:436–9. doi: 10.1136/jme.2008.026799.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

38. Wilson K, Chochinov HM, McPherson CJ, et al. Desire for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in palliative cancer care. Health Psychol. 2007;26:314–23. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.26.3.314.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

39. Bernheim J, Deschepper R, Distelmans W, Mullie A, Bilsen J, Deliens L. Development of palliative care and legalisation of euthanasia: antagonism or synergy? BMJ. 2008;336:864–7. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39497.397257.AD.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

40. Wasserfallen JB, Chioléro R, Stiefel F. Assisted suicide in an acute care hospital: 18 months’ experience. Swiss Med Wkly. 2008;138:239–42.[PubMed]

41. Pereira J, Laurent P, Cantin B, Petremand D, Currat T. The response of a Swiss university hospital’s palliative care consult team to assisted suicide within the institution. Palliat Med. 2008;22:659–67. doi: 10.1177/0269216308091248.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

42. Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland . Submission from the Ethics Committee to the Select Committee of the House of Lords on the Assisted Dying Bill. Southampton, U.K.: Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland; 2004.

43. Kelly BD, McLoughlin DM. Euthanasia, assisted suicide and psychiatry: a Pandora’s box. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;181:278–9. doi: 10.1192/bjp.181.4.278.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

44. Shah N, Warner J, Blizard B, King N. National survey of U.K. psychiatrists’ attitudes to euthanasia. Lancet. 1998;352:1360. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)60751-9.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

45. Harvath TA, Miller LL, Smith KA, Clark LD, Jackson A, Ganzini L. Dilemmas encountered by hospice workers when patients wish to hasten death. J Hosp Palliat Nurs. 2006;8:200–9. doi: 10.1097/00129191-200607000-00011.[Cross Ref]

46. George RJD, Finlay IG, Jeffrey D. Legalised euthanasia will violate the rights of vulnerable patients. BMJ. 2005;331:684–5. doi: 10.1136/bmj.331.7518.684.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

47. Euthanasia [letter] Lancet. 1991;338:1150.[PubMed]

48. Zylicz Z. Hospice in Holland: the story behind the blank spot. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 1993;10:30–4. doi: 10.1177/104990919301000409.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

49. United Kingdom . Human Rights Act 1998. London, U.K.: United Kingdom; 1998. Schedule 1, Article 2.1. [Available online at:; cited February 17, 2011]

50. Oregon Department of Human Services (dhs), Office of Disease Prevention and Epidemiology . Sixth Annual Report on Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act. Portland, OR: dhs; 2004. [Available online at:; cited February 17, 2011]

51. Battin MP, van der Heide A, Ganzini L, van der Wal G, Onwuteaka–Philipsen BD. Legal physician-assisted dying in Oregon and the Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in “vulnerable” groups. J Med Ethics. 2007;33:591–7. doi: 10.1136/jme.2007.022335.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

52. Finlay IG, George R. Legal physician-assisted suicide in Oregon and the Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in vulnerable groups; another perspective on Oregon’s data. J Med Ethics. 2010. [Epub ahead of print].

Euthanasia Essay

1375 Words6 Pages

Euthanasia, People should be able to take there own lives

     The beliefs and views of our country are hypocritical and unjust. As we grow from a young child to a mature adult, we are taught many things such as that killing another human being is wrong, it is against the law and goes against most people's religious beliefs. Yet, there are some instances when this rule does not seem to apply. If someone kills another in self-defense it is seen as an act of bravery, if a soldier kills an enemy in war it is seen as courageous and honorable. But who is to say that these acts are more justifiable than allowing someone who is in extreme pain and suffering to be given an…show more content…

     Another argument supporting the use of euthanasia is that everyone would benefit if it were legal to show mercy when death becomes preferable over life. With that in mind one must look at the families and loved ones of those who wish to end their extreme suffering. No one would want to watch a loved one die in extreme agony, while sitting there not being able to do anything. This feeling of helplessness and despair would almost be unimaginable. Making anyone watch this while hoping for a quick end to his or her loved one's suffering, would be wrong in itself. Although this type of case is rare in the real world is very rare, just one case alone would be argument enough for the use of euthanasia.
While the views of many people may be against the use of euthanasia, its sad to say that in all actuality it goes on almost everyday. Many people have heard of doctors who report that they have, out of compassion and mercy, given heavy doses of morphine to relieve the pain and suffering of patients who are near an inevitable death. While doing this, the doctors know perfectly well what the ending result will be that death will come quicker. Somehow this is right, since the goal of this is to ease the pain and not actually to kill the patient. But would it not also be right to do the very same thing with the goal of making death come to the patient?

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